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Dialects Of Punjabi
The term dialect (from Latin
Latin
dialectus, dialectos, from the Ancient Greek word διάλεκτος, diálektos, "discourse", from διά, diá, "through" and λέγω, légō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:One usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers.[1] Under this definition, the dialects or varieties of a particular language are closely related and, despite their differences, are most often largely mutually intelligible, especially if close to one another on the dialect continuum
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Dialect (other)
A dialect is a variety of a spoken or written language. Dialect(s) may also refer to: Dialect
Dialect
continuum Dialect
Dialect
(computing) Di•a•lects, a 1986 alb
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Pidgin
A pidgin[1][2][3] /ˈpɪdʒɪn/, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included. It is most commonly employed in situations such as trade, or where both groups speak languages different from the language of the country in which they reside (but where there is no common language between the groups). Fundamentally, a pidgin is a simplified means of linguistic communication, as it is constructed impromptu, or by convention, between individuals or groups of people. A pidgin is not the native language of any speech community, but is instead learned as a second language.[4][5] A pidgin may be built from words, sounds, or body language from a multitude of languages as well as onomatopoeia
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Dialect Levelling
Dialect
Dialect
levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization
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Regional Italian
Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, is any regional[note 1] variety of the Italian language. Such regional varieties and standard Italian exist along a sociolect continuum, and are not to be confused with the actual languages of Italy[note 2] that predate the national tongue or any regional dialect thereof
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Phonology
Phonology
Phonology
is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages
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Prosody (linguistics)
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech. These contribute to linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm
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Accent (dialect)
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.[1] An accent may be identified with the locality in which its speakers reside (a regional or geographical accent), the socio-economic status of its speakers, their ethnicity, their caste or social class (a social accent), or influence from their first language (a foreign accent).[2] Accents typically differ in quality of the voice, pronunciation and distinction of vowels and consonants, stress, and prosody. Although grammar, semantics, vocabulary, and other language characteristics often vary concurrently with accent, the word "accent" may refer specifically to the differences in pronunciation, whereas the word "dialect" encompasses the broader set of linguistic differences
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Jargon
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context. The context is usually a particular occupation (that is, a certain trade, profession, or academic field), but any ingroup; or social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member, can have jargon. The main trait that distinguishes jargon from the rest of a language is special vocabulary—including some words specific to it, and often different senses or meanings of words, that outgroups would tend to take in another sense; —therefore misunderstanding that communication attempt. Jargon is thus "the technical terminology or characteristic idiom of a special activity or group".[1] Most jargon is technical terminology,[2] involving terms of art[2] or industry terms, with particular meaning within a specific industry
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Lexicon
A lexicon, word-hoard, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes. The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon), neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for words."[1] Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as consisting of two parts: a lexicon, essentially a catalogue of a language's words (its wordstock); and a grammar, a system of rules which allow for the combination of those words into meaningful sentences. The lexicon is also thought to include bound morphemes, which cannot stand alone as words (such as most affixes).[2] In some analyses, compound words and certain classes of idiomatic expressions and other collocations are also considered to be part of the lexicon
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Vocabulary
A vocabulary is a set of familia words within a person's language. A vocabulary, usually developed with age, serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge
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Slang
Slang refers to words, phrases and uses that are regarded as very informal and often restricted to special context or peculiar to a specified profession class and the like. Slang words are used in specific social groups, like teenagers, which they use oftentimes in their conversations.Contents1 Etymology of the word slang 2 Defining slang2.1 Examples of slang (cross-linguistic)3 Formation of slang 4 Social implications4.1 Indexicality4.1.1 First and second order indexicality 4.1.2 Higher-order indexicality4.2 Subculture associations 4.3 Social media and Internet slang 4.4 Debates about slang5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology of the word slang[edit] In its earliest attested use (1756), the word slang referred to the vocabulary of "low or disreputable" people, commonly phrased as the use of shortened language
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Patois
Patois (/ˈpætwɑː/, pl. same or /ˈpætwɑːz/)[1] is speech or language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics
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Argot
An argot (English: /ˈɑːrɡoʊ/; from French argot [aʁˈɡo] 'slang') is a secret language used by various groups—e.g., schoolmates, outlaws, colleagues, among many others—to prevent outsiders from understanding their conversations. The term argot is also used to refer to the informal specialized vocabulary from a particular field of study, occupation, or hobby, in which sense it overlaps with jargon. The discipline of medicine has been referred to as having its own argot which includes abbreviations, acronyms, and "technical colloquialisms".[1] Author Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
was one of the first to research argot extensively.[2] He describes it in his 1862 novel Les Misérables
Les Misérables
as the language of the dark; at one point, he says, "What is argot; properly speaking? Argot is the language of misery." The earliest known record of the term argot in this context was in a 1628 document
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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Idiolect
Idiolect is an individual's distinctive and unique use of language, including speech. This unique usage encompasses vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. Idiolect is the variety of language unique to an individual. This differs from a dialect, a common set of linguistic characteristics shared among some group of people. The term idiolect refers to the language of an individual. It is etymologically related to the Greek. prefix idio- (meaning own, personal, private, peculiar, separate, distinct) and a back-formation of dialect.Contents1 Language 2 Forensic linguistics 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLanguage[edit] The notion of language is used as an abstract description of the language use, and of the abilities of individual speakers and listeners.[1][better source needed] According to this view, a language is an "ensemble of idiolects ..
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