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Dhows
Dhow
Dhow
( Arabic
Arabic
داو dāw) is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with settee or sometimes lateen sails, used in the Red Sea
Red Sea
and Indian Ocean region. Historians are divided as to whether the dhow was invented by Arabs
Arabs
or Indians.[1][2] Typically sporting long thin hulls, dhows are trading vessels primarily used to carry heavy items, like fruit, fresh water or merchandise, along the coasts of Eastern Arabia
Eastern Arabia
(Arab states of the Persian Gulf),[3] East Africa, Yemen
Yemen
and coastal South Asia
South Asia
(Pakistan, India, Bangladesh)
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Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(/ˈzænzɪbɑːr/; Swahili: Zanzibar; Arabic: زنجبار‎, translit. Zanjibār) is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania
Tanzania
in East Africa. It is composed of the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Archipelago in the Indian Ocean, 25–50 kilometres (16–31 mi) off the coast of the mainland, and consists of many small islands and two large ones: Unguja
Unguja
(the main island, referred to informally as Zanzibar) and Pemba Island. The capital is Zanzibar
Zanzibar
City, located on the island of Unguja. Its historic centre is Stone Town, which is a World Heritage Site. The name Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is derived from the Persian zang-bâr signifying "black coast".[5] Zanzibar's main industries are spices, raffia, and tourism.[6] In particular, the islands produce cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, and black pepper
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Horizon
The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not. At many locations, the true horizon is obscured by trees, buildings, mountains, etc., and the resulting intersection of earth and sky is called the visible horizon
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Alan Villiers
Alan John Villiers (23 September 1903 – 3 March 1982) was an author, adventurer, photographer and mariner. Born in Melbourne, Australia, Villiers first went to sea at age 15 and sailed on board traditionally rigged vessels, including the full-rigged ship Joseph Conrad. He commanded square-rigged ships for films, including Moby Dick and Billy Budd. He also commanded the Mayflower II
Mayflower II
on its voyage from the United Kingdom to the United States.[1] Villiers wrote 44 books, and served as the Chairman of the Society for Nautical Research, a Trustee of the National Maritime Museum, and Governor of the Cutty Sark Preservation Society
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Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
(Persian: شاخاب پارس‬‎, translit. Xalij-e Fârs, lit. 'Gulf of Fars') is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
(Gulf of Oman) through the Strait of Hormuz
Strait of Hormuz
and lies between Iran
Iran
to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
to the southwest.[1] The Shatt al-Arab
Shatt al-Arab
river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers
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Marine Propulsion
Marine propulsion
Marine propulsion
is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller, or less frequently, in pump-jets, an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, and sail were the first forms of marine propulsion. Rowed galleys, some equipped with sail, also played an important early role. The first advanced mechanical means of marine propulsion was the marine steam engine, introduced in the early 19th century. During the 20th century it was replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on faster ships
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Date Palm
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm,[2] is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Although its place of origin is unknown because of long cultivation, it probably originated from the Fertile Crescent, region straddling between Egypt
Egypt
and Mesopotamia.[3] The species is widely cultivated across Northern Africa, Middle East
Middle East
and South Asia, and is naturalized in many tropical and subtropical regions worldwide.[4][5][6] P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production.[3] Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height,[7] growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system
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Mangrove
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres (53,200 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and territories.[1] Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action
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Monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon
(/mɒnˈsuːn/) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation,[1] but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.[2][3] Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains,[4] although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon.[5] The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West
West
African and Asia-Australian monsoons
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Kamal (navigation)
A kamal is a celestial navigation device that determines latitude. The invention of the kamal allowed for the earliest known latitude sailing,[1] and was thus the earliest step towards the use of quantitative methods in navigation.[2] It originated with Arab navigators of the late 9th century,[3] and was employed in the Indian Ocean from the 10th century.[1] It was adopted by Indian navigators soon after,[4] and then adopted by Chinese navigators some time before the 16th century.[2]Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesDescription[edit]Usage of the kamal to determine the elevation of Polaris. Since the star is currently close to the celestial pole, its elevation is equal to the latitude of the observer.The kamal consists of a rectangular wooden card about 2 by 1 inch (5.1 by 2.5 cm), to which a string with several equally spaced knots is attached through a hole in the middle of the card
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Latitude
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude
Latitude
is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator
Equator
to 90° ( North
North
or South) at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude
Latitude
is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Without qualification the term latitude should be taken to be the geodetic latitude as defined in the following sections
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Pole Star
Pole star
Pole star
or polar star is a name of Polaris
Polaris
in the constellation Ursa Minor, after its property of being the naked-eye star closest to the Earth's north celestial pole. The name Polaris, introduced in the 18th century, is shortened from New Latin
New Latin
stella polaris, meaning "pole star". Polaris
Polaris
is also known as Lodestar, Guiding Star, or North Star from its property of remaining in a fixed position throughout the course of the night and its use in celestial navigation. It is a dependable, though inexact, indicator of the direction toward the geographic north pole; it is virtually fixed, and its angle of elevation can also be used to determine latitude. The south celestial pole lacks a bright star like Polaris
Polaris
to mark its position
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Swahili Coast
The Swahili Coast is a coastal area in Southeast Africa
Southeast Africa
inhabited by the Swahili people. It mainly consists of littoral Kenya, Tanzania, and northern Mozambique. The term may also include some of the Indian Ocean
Ocean
islands, such as Zanzibar, Pate and Comoros, which lie off the Swahili Coast
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Mule
Equus mulusA grey muleA mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).[1][2] Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two F1 hybrids (first generation hybrids) between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny, which is the offspring of a female donkey (jenny) and a male horse (stallion). The size of a mule and work to which it is put depend largely on the breeding of the mule's female parent (dam)
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Badan (ship)
The Beden', badan, or alternate type names Beden-seyed and Beden-safar, is a fast, ancient Somali single or double-masted maritime vessel and ship, typified by its towering stern-post and powerful rudder. It is also the longest surviving sewn boat in the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and the Arabian Peninsula. Its shipyards predominantly lie in the northeastern Hafun
Hafun
region of Somalia
Somalia
(notably Bayla), as well as Muscat. There are 2 types of Beden
Beden
ships, with one type geared towards fishing (the Beden-seyed) and the other, trading (Beden-safar). The average trading Beden-safar ship measure more than 15 m (49 ft) in length, and are significantly larger than the fishing Beden-seyed ships, which measure 6-15m (20-49 ft) on average, but both are dwarfed by a much larger trading variant called the 'uwassiye’
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