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Design For Test
DESIGN FOR TESTING or DESIGN FOR TESTABILITY (DFT) consists of IC design techniques that add testability features to a hardware product design. The added features make it easier to develop and apply manufacturing tests to the designed hardware. The purpose of manufacturing tests is to validate that the product hardware contains no manufacturing defects that could adversely affect the product's correct functioning. Tests are applied at several steps in the hardware manufacturing flow and, for certain products, may also be used for hardware maintenance in the customer's environment. The tests are generally driven by test programs that execute using automatic test equipment (ATE) or, in the case of system maintenance, inside the assembled system itself. In addition to finding and indicating the presence of defects (i.e., the test fails), tests may be able to log diagnostic information about the nature of the encountered test fails
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Multi-Chip Module
A MULTI-CHIP MODULE (MCM) is generically an electronic assembly (such as a package with a number of conductor terminals or "pins" ) where multiple integrated circuits (ICs or "chips"), semiconductor dies and/or other discrete components are integrated, usually onto a unifying substrate, so that in use it is treated as if it were a single component (as though a larger IC). Other terms, such as "hybrid" or "hybrid integrated circuit ", also refer to MCMs. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Chip stack MCMs * 3 Examples of MCM technologies * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OVERVIEWMulti-chip modules come in a variety of forms depending on the complexity and development philosophies of their designers. These can range from using pre-packaged ICs on a small printed circuit board (PCB) meant to mimic the package footprint of an existing chip package to fully custom chip packages integrating many chip dies on a high density interconnection (HDI) substrate
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Memory (computers)
In computing , MEMORY refers to the computer hardware devices involved to store information for immediate use in a computer ; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage ". Computer
Computer
memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory (RAM), as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access program and data storage but offers higher capacities. If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage , through a memory management technique called "virtual memory ". An archaic synonym for memory is STORE. The term "memory", meaning "primary storage" or "main memory ", is often associated with addressable semiconductor memory , i.e. integrated circuits consisting of silicon -based transistors , used for example as primary storage but also other purposes in computers and other digital electronic devices. There are two main kinds of semiconductor memory, volatile and non-volatile
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Flip-flop (electronics)
In electronics , a FLIP-FLOP or LATCH is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information. A flip-flop is a bistable multivibrator . The circuit can be made to change state by signals applied to one or more control inputs and will have one or two outputs. It is the basic storage element in sequential logic . Flip-flops and latches are fundamental building blocks of digital electronics systems used in computers, communications, and many other types of systems. Flip-flops and latches are used as data storage elements. A flip-flop stores a single bit (binary digit) of data; one of its two states represents a "one" and the other represents a "zero". Such data storage can be used for storage of state , and such a circuit is described as sequential logic . When used in a finite-state machine , the output and next state depend not only on its current input, but also on its current state (and hence, previous inputs)
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Printed Circuit Board
A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate . Components (e.g. capacitors , resistors or active devices) are generally soldered on the PCB. Advanced PCBs may contain components embedded in the substrate. PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers) or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Conductors on different layers are connected with vias . Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher component density. FR-4 glass epoxy is the primary insulating substrate. A basic building block of the PCB is an FR-4 panel with a thin layer of copper foil laminated to one or both sides. In multi-layer boards multiple layers of material are laminated together. Printed circuit boards are used in all but the simplest electronic products
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Wafer (electronics)
A WAFER, also called a SLICE or SUBSTRATE , is a thin slice of semiconductor material , such as a crystalline silicon , used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells . The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and over the wafer and undergoes many microfabrication process steps such as doping or ion implantation , etching , deposition of various materials, and photolithographic patterning. Finally the individual microcircuits are separated (dicing ) and packaged
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Computational Complexity Theory
COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY THEORY is a branch of the theory of computation in theoretical computer science that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty, and relating those classes to each other. A computational problem is understood to be a task that is in principle amenable to being solved by a computer, which is equivalent to stating that the problem may be solved by mechanical application of mathematical steps, such as an algorithm . A problem is regarded as inherently difficult if its solution requires significant resources, whatever the algorithm used. The theory formalizes this intuition, by introducing mathematical models of computation to study these problems and quantifying the amount of resources needed to solve them, such as time and storage
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Moore's Law
MOORE\'S LAW is the observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years. The observation is named after Gordon Moore
Gordon Moore
, the co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor
Semiconductor
and Intel
Intel
, whose 1965 paper described a doubling every year in the number of components per integrated circuit, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade. In 1975, looking forward to the next decade, he revised the forecast to doubling every two years. The period is often quoted as 18 months because of Intel
Intel
executive David House, who predicted that chip performance would double every 18 months (being a combination of the effect of more transistors and the transistors being faster)
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Clock Signal
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits , a CLOCK SIGNAL is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is utilized like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits . A clock signal is produced by a clock generator . Although more complex arrangements are used, the most common clock signal is in the form of a square wave with a 50% duty cycle , usually with a fixed, constant frequency. Circuits using the clock signal for synchronization may become active at either the rising edge, falling edge, or, in the case of double data rate , both in the rising and in the falling edges of the clock cycle
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Serial Vector Format
SERIAL VECTOR FORMAT (SVF) is a file format that contains boundary scan vectors to be sent to an electronic circuit using a JTAG interface. Boundary scan vectors consist of the following data: * Stimulus data: This is data to be sent to a device or electronic circuit * Expected response: This is the data the device or circuit is expected to send back if there is no error * Mask data: Defines which bits in the expected response are valid; other bits of the device's response are unknown and must be ignored when comparing the expected response and the data returned from the circuit * Additional information on how to send the data (e.g. maximum clock frequency)The SVF standard was jointly developed by companies Texas Instruments and Teradyne . Control over the format has been handed off to boundary-scan solution provider ASSET InterTech. The most recent revision is Revision E. SVF files are used to transfer boundary scan data between tools
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Joint Test Action Group
The JOINT TEST ACTION GROUP (JTAG) is an electronics industry association formed in 1985 for developing a method of verifying designs and testing printed circuit boards after manufacture. In 1990 the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
codified the results of the effort in IEEE
IEEE
Standard 1149.1-1990, entitled Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. JTAG implements standards for on-chip instrumentation in electronic design automation (EDA) as a complementary tool to digital simulation
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Iddq Testing
IDDQ TESTING is a method for testing CMOS integrated circuits for the presence of manufacturing faults. It relies on measuring the supply current (Idd) in the quiescent state (when the circuit is not switching and inputs are held at static values). The current consumed in the state is commonly called Iddq for Idd (quiescent) and hence the name. Iddq testing uses the principle that in a correctly operating quiescent CMOS digital circuit , there is no static current path between the power supply and ground, except for a small amount of leakage. Many common semiconductor manufacturing faults will cause the current to increase by orders of magnitude, which can be easily detected. This has the advantage of checking the chip for many possible faults with one measurement. Another advantage is that it may catch faults that are not found by conventional stuck-at fault test vectors . Iddq testing is somewhat more complex than just measuring the supply current
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Built-in Self-test
A BUILT-IN SELF-TEST (BIST) or BUILT-IN TEST (BIT) is a mechanism that permits a machine to test itself. Engineers design BISTs to meet requirements such as: * high reliability * lower repair cycle times or constraints such as: * limited technician accessibility * cost of testing during manufactureThe main purpose of BIST is to reduce the complexity, and thereby decrease the cost and reduce reliance upon external (pattern-programmed) test equipment. BIST reduces cost in two ways: * reduces test-cycle duration * reduces the complexity of the test/probe setup, by reducing the number of I/O signals that must be driven/examined under tester control.Both lead to a reduction in hourly charges for automated test equipment (ATE) service
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Fault Grading
FAULT GRADING is a procedure that rates testability by relating the number of fabrication defects that can in fact be detected with a test vector set under consideration to the total number of conceivable faults. It is used for refining both the test circuitry and the test patterns iteratively, until a satisfactory fault coverage is obtained. SEE ALSO * Automatic test pattern generation * Design for Test REFERENCES * ^ Kaeslin, Hubert (2008-04-28), Digital Integrated Circuit Design: From VLSI Architectures to CMOS Fabrication, Cambridge University Press, p
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