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Denianke Kingdom
The Empire of Great Fulo, also known as the Denanke Kingdom or Denianke Kingdom, was a pre-Islamic Pulaar kingdom of Senegal, which dominated the Futa Tooro
Futa Tooro
region. Its population dominated its neighbors through use of cavalry and fought wars against the Mali and Songhai empires.Contents1 Tenguella (1490–1512) 2 Koli Tenguella (1512–1537) 3 Denanke Successors 4 See also 5 Sources 6 External links Tenguella (1490–1512)[edit] The state began as a violent migration of Fula nomads from Futa Djallon into the Gambia led by Tenguella, their first king or mansa, in 1490. His attack was directed against the remaining Atlantic provinces of the Mali Empire. Though without a fixed headquarters, Tenguella's following grew so large that he was referred to as the "Great king of the Fulos" or the "Great Fulo" in Portuguese documents of the same period
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Denianke Dynasty
The Denianke Dynasty
Dynasty
or Denyanke Dynasty
Dynasty
ruled the Empire of Great Fulo from the 16th century into the late 18th century. It was a Fula Dynasty
Dynasty
established by Dengalla Koli in 1513. Unlike the later Fula pre-colonial states of Futa Toro, Futa Jallon and Massina, the Denianke dynasty followed a traditional African religion. This led them into conflict with the increasingly Muslim subjects of the realm, leading to their overthrow in 1776. List of Sila Tigi or Manga of the Denianke Dynasty[edit]Dengella Koli I (1513–1535) Dengella Koli II (1535–1538) 15 rulers unknown by name (1538–1765) Sule-Budu (1765–1776)Denianke dynasty overthrown by Muslim revolt. Start of the Imamate of Futa Toro See also[edit]Empire of Great Fulo History of SenegalSources[edit]Stewart, John (1989)
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Massina Empire
The Massina Empire
Massina Empire
(Var.: Maasina or Macina: also: Dina of Massina, Sise Jihad state, and Caliphate of Hamdullahi) was an early nineteenth-century Fulbe Jihad state centered in the Inner Niger Delta area of what is now the Mopti and Ségou
Ségou
Regions of Mali
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Imamate Of Futa Jallon
The Imamate of Futa Jallon
Imamate of Futa Jallon
or Jalon (French: Fouta Djallon; Pular: Fuuta Jaloo or Fuuta Jalon[1]) was a West African theocratic state based in the Fouta Djallon
Fouta Djallon
highlands of modern Guinea. The state was founded around 1727 by a Fulani jihad and became part of the French Third Republic's colonial empire in 1896.Contents1 Origin 2 Organization 3 Dominance 4 Decline 5 See also 6 ReferencesOrigin[edit] The Fouta Djallon
Fouta Djallon
region was settled by the semi-nomadic Fulɓe over successive generations between 13th and 16th centuries
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Gao Empire
The Gao Empire precedes that of the Songhai Empire in the region of the Middle Niger. It owes its name to the town of Gao located at the eastern Niger bend. In the ninth century CE, it was considered to be the most powerful West African kingdom.Contents1 Sources on Gao history 2 Pre-Islamic history 3 Early Islamic history 4 The Gao Empire and the Almoravids4.1 Towns 4.2 Kings of Gao-Saney and the Almoravids5 Decline 6 Bibliography 7 NotesSources on Gao history[edit] Apart from some Arabic epitaphs on tombstones discovered in 1939 at the cemetery of Gao-Saney (6 km to the east of the city)[1] there are no surviving indigenous written records that date from before the middle of the 17th century.[2] Our knowledge of the early history of the town relies on the writings of external Arabic geographers living in Morocco, Egypt and Andalusia, who never visited the region. These authors referred to the town as Kawkaw or Kuku
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Ghana Empire
Location = between river Senegal and river Gambia]]Mali EmpireToday part of  Mali  Mauritania  SenegalThe Ghana Empire (c. 700 until c. 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler) was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali. Complex societies based on trans-Saharan trade with salt and gold had existed in the region since ancient times[1], but the introduction of the camel to the western Sahara in the 3rd century A.D. opened the way to great changes in the area that became the Ghana Empire. By the time of the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 7th century the camel had changed the ancient, more irregular trade routes into a trade network running from Morocco to the Niger river. The Ghana Empire grew rich from this increased trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt, allowing for larger urban centres to develop
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Hausa Kingdoms
The Hausa Kingdom, also known as Hausaland[1], was a collection of states started by the Hausa people, situated between the Niger River and Lake Chad
Lake Chad
(modern day northern Nigeria). Hausaland lay between the Western Sudanic kingdoms of Ancient Ghana and Mali and the Eastern Sudanic kingdoms of Kanem-Bornu. Hausaland took shape as a political and cultural region during the first millennium CE as a result of the westward expansion of Hausa peoples. They arrived to Hausaland when the terrain was converting from woodlands to savannah. They started cultivating grains, which led to a denser peasant population. They had a common language, laws, and customs. The Hausa were known for fishing, hunting, agriculture, salt-mining, and blacksmithing. By the 14th century Kano
Kano
had become the most powerful city-state. Kano
Kano
had become the base for the trans-Saharan trade in salt, cloth, leather, and grain
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Kaarta
Kaarta, or Ka'arta,[1] was a short-lived Bambara kingdom in what is today the western half of Mali. As Bitòn Coulibaly
Bitòn Coulibaly
tightened his control over Ségou, capital of his newly founded Bambara Empire, a faction of Ségou
Ségou
Bambara dissatisfied with his rule fled west. In 1753, they founded the kingdom of Kaarta on the homeland of the long-defunct Ghana Empire, taking Nioro du Sahel as their capital. The kingdom was destroyed as an independent force in 1854 by El Hadj Umar Tall's jihad across West Africa; Umar Tall seized Nioro, and put the Kaarta
Kaarta
king (Fama) Mamady Kandian and his entire family to death. In 1878 the French governor of Senegal Briere de l'Isle sent a French force against the Kaarta
Kaarta
Toucouleur vassal state along the north bank of the Senegal River
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Kaabu
The Kaabu
Kaabu
Empire
Empire
(1537–1867), also written Gabu, Ngabou, and N’Gabu', was a Mandinka kingdom of Senegambia
Senegambia
centered within modern northeastern Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
but extending into Casamance
Casamance
in Senegal. It rose to prominence in the region thanks to its origins as a former province of the Mali Empire. After the decline of the Mali Empire, Kaabu
Kaabu
became an independent kingdom
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Kanem Empire
The Kanem– Bornu Empire
Bornu Empire
was an empire that existed in modern Chad
Chad
and Nigeria. It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem Empire from the 9th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu (the Bornu Empire) until 1900. The Kanem Empire
Kanem Empire
(c. 700–1380) was located in the present countries of Chad, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Libya.[2] At its height it encompassed an area covering not only most of Chad, but also parts of southern Libya
Libya
(Fezzan) and eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
and northern Cameroon. The Bornu Empire (1380s–1893) was a state of what is now northeastern Nigeria, in time becoming even larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad, Niger, Sudan, and Cameroon; is existed from 1380s to 1893
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Kong Empire
The Kong Empire
Empire
(1710–1898), also known as the Wattara Empire
Empire
or Ouattara Empire
Empire
for its founder, was a pre-colonial African Muslim state centered in north eastern Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
that also encompassed much of present-day Burkina Faso. It was founded by Dyula immigrants from the declining Mali Empire. It established a largely decentralized commercial empire based upon linkages by merchant houses protecting trade routes throughout the region. Kong rose to prominence in the 1800s as a key commercial center and center of Islamic studies. In 1898, Samori Ture
Samori Ture
attacked the city and burnt it down
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Mahdist Sudan
The Mahdist Sudan
Sudan
or Sudanese Mahdiyya was a religious and political movement, launched in 1881 by Muammad Ahmad bin Abdullah (later Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi) against the Khedivate of Egypt
Khedivate of Egypt
which had ruled the Sudan
Sudan
since 1821. After four years of struggle, the Mahdist rebels overthrew the Ottoman-Egyptian administration and established their own "Islamic and national" government with its capital in Omdurman. Thus, from 1885 the Mahdist regime maintained sovereignty and control over the Sudanese territories until its existence was terminated by the Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1898. Mohammed Ahmed al-Mahdi called on people and instigated them in which he called jihad against the government that is based in Khartoum. Egyptians and Turks were the mainstay of this government. The Khartoum government dismissed the Mahdist revolution
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Mossi Kingdoms
The Mossi Kingdoms, sometimes referred to as the Mossi Empire, were a number of different powerful kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
which dominated the region of the upper Volta river for hundreds of years. The kingdoms were founded when warriors from the Mamprusi area, in modern-day Ghana
Ghana
moved into the area and intermarried with local people. Centralization of the political and military powers of the kingdoms begin in the 13th century and led to conflicts between the Mossi kingdoms and many of the other powerful states in the region
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Sultanate Of Darfur
The Sultanate of Darfur was a pre-colonial Nile Valley state in present-day Sudan. It functioned independently from 1603 to October 24, 1874.Contents1 Origins 2 Islam and Prosperity in Darfur 3 Civil War (1722–1786) 4 Mohammed II Tairab 5 Abd-er-Rahman the Just 6 Mohammed-el-Fadhl 7 The Turkiyya (Ottoman rule) 8 Conquest 9 ReferencesOrigins[edit] Main article: History of Darfur Darfur is composed mostly of semi-arid plains that cannot support a dense population. The one exception is the area in and around the Jebal Marra mountains. It was from bases in these mountains that a series of groups expanded to control the region. The Daju and the 14th century migrants the Tunjur were the earliest powers in Darfur according to written records
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Saloum
The Kingdom of Saloum
Saloum
(Serer language: Saluum or Saalum) was a Serer/Wolof[3] kingdom in present-day Senegal. Its kings may have been of Mandinka/ Kaabu
Kaabu
origin.[3] The capital of Saloum
Saloum
was the city of Kahone. It was a sister kingdom of Sine. Their history, geography and culture were intricately linked and it was common to refer to them as the Sine-Saloum.Contents1 History 2 People and language 3 Commerce and geography 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit]Apartment of the Maad Saloum
Maad Saloum
(king of Saloum) in 1821.Carte des peuplades du Sénégal de l'abbé Boilat (1853): an ethnic map of Senegal
Senegal
at the time of French colonialism
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Sennar (sultanate)
^ b. Estimate for entire area covered by modern Sudan.[6] ^ c. The Funj Sultanate
Sultanate
did not mint coins and the markets did not use coinage as a form of exchange.[7] French surgeon J. C
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