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Denianke Kingdom
The EMPIRE OF GREAT FULO, also known as the DENANKE KINGDOM or DENIANKE KINGDOM, was a pre-Islamic Pulaar kingdom of Senegal
Senegal
, which dominated the Futa Tooro region. Its population dominated its neighbors through use of cavalry and fought wars against the Mali and Songhai empires. CONTENTS * 1 Tenguella (1490–1512) * 2 Koli Tenguella (1512–1537) * 3 Denanke Successors * 4 See also * 5 Sources * 6 External links TENGUELLA (1490–1512)The state began as a violent migration of Fula nomads from Futa Djallon into the Gambia led by Tenguella , their first king or mansa, in 1490. His attack was directed against the remaining Atlantic provinces of the Mali Empire . Though without a fixed headquarters, Tenguella's following grew so large that he was referred to as the "Great king of the Fulos" or the "Great Fulo" in Portuguese documents of the same period
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Sultanate Of Darfur
The SULTANATE OF DARFUR was a pre-colonial Nile Valley
Nile Valley
state in present-day Sudan
Sudan
. It functioned independently from 1603 to October 24, 1874. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Islam
Islam
and Prosperity in Darfur
Darfur
* 3 Civil War (1722–1786) * 4 Mohammed II Tairab * 5 Abd-er-Rahman the Just * 6 Mohammed-el-Fadhl * 7 The Turkiyya (Ottoman rule) * 8 Conquest * 9 References ORIGINS Main article: History of Darfur
Darfur
Darfur
Darfur
is composed mostly of semi-arid plains that cannot support a dense population. The one exception is the area in and around the Jebal Marra mountains. It was from bases in these mountains that a series of groups expanded to control the region. The Daju and the 14th century migrants the Tunjur were the earliest powers in Darfur according to written records
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Ghana Empire
The GHANA EMPIRE (c. 400 until c. 1200), properly known as AWKAR ( Ghana
Ghana
or Ga'na being the title of its ruler) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania
Mauritania
and western Mali
Mali
. Complex societies based on trans-Saharan trade with salt and gold had existed in the region since ancient times But the introduction of the camel to western Sahara in the 3rd century A.D. gave way to great changes in the area that became the Ghana
Ghana
Empire. By the time of the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 7th century the camel had changed the ancient more irregular trade routes into a trade network running from Morocco
Morocco
to the Niger river
Niger river

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Kaabu
The KAABU EMPIRE (1537–1867), also written GABU, NGABOU, and N’GABU\', was a Mandinka kingdom of Senegambia centered within modern northeastern Guinea-Bissau
Guinea-Bissau
but extending into Casamance in Senegal
Senegal
. It rose to prominence in the region thanks to its origins as a former province of the Mali Empire
Empire
. After the decline of the Mali Empire, Kaabu
Kaabu
became an independent kingdom. It was eventually annexed by Futa Jallon during the 19th century Fula jihads prior to the incorporation of the area into the Portuguese and French spheres of influence during the Scramble for Africa
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Bornu Empire
The BORNU EMPIRE (1380–1893) was a state of what is now northeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
from 1380 to 1893. It was a continuation of the great Kanem Empire founded centuries earlier by the Sayfawa Dynasty . In time it would become even larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad
Chad
, Niger
Niger
and Cameroon
Cameroon

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Baol
The KINGDOM OF BAOL or BAWOL in central Senegal
Senegal
was one of the kingdoms that arose from the split-up of the Empire of Jolof (Diolof) in 1555. The ruler (Teigne or Teen ) reigned from a capital in Diourbel . The Kingdom encompassed a strip of land extending east from the ocean to the capital city and included the cities of Touba and MBacke. It was directly south of the Kingdom of Cayor and north of the Kingdom of Sine . The first King of Baol
Baol
is Ji the Great. Baol
Baol
was famous for its horses. It has special breeds, which were faster and stronger than most of the horses on the plain. Baol citizens are good riders. Baol
Baol
was ethnically a Wolof kingdom, but it included communities of Serer-Safen and other Serer groups. The social and political systems were basically the same as those of Cayor
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Sahelian Kingdoms
The SAHELIAN KINGDOMS were a series of kingdoms or empires that were centered on the Sahel
Sahel
, the area of grasslands south of the Sahara
Sahara
. The wealth of the states came from controlling the trade routes across the desert. Their power came from having large pack animals like camels and horses that were fast enough to keep a large empire under central control and were also useful in such kind of battles battle. All of these empires were also quite decentralized with member cities having a great deal of autonomy. The Sahel
Sahel
states were limited from expanding south into the forest zone of the Ashanti and Yoruba as mounted warriors were all but useless in the forests and the horses and camels could not survive the heat and diseases of the region
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Bamana Empire
The BAMANA EMPIRE (also BAMBARA EMPIRE or SéGOU EMPIRE) was a large West African state based at Ségou
Ségou
, now in Mali
Mali
. This state was established after the fall of the Mali
Mali
Empire and the Keita dynasty , as a smaller Bambara Empire founded by other Bambara families related to the Keita clan. It was ruled by the Kulubali or Coulibaly dynasty established c. 1640 by Kaladian Coulibaly also known as Fa Sine or Biton-si-u. The empire existed as a centralized state from 1712 to the 1861 invasion of Toucouleur conqueror El Hadj Umar Tall
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Kanem Empire
The KANEM EMPIRE (c. 700–1376) was located in the present countries of Chad
Chad
, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Libya
Libya
. At its height it encompassed an area covering not only most of Chad, but also parts of southern Libya ( Fezzan
Fezzan
) and eastern Niger
Niger
, northeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
and northern Cameroon
Cameroon
. The history of the Empire
Empire
is mainly known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth
Heinrich Barth

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Mossi Kingdoms
The MOSSI KINGDOMS, sometimes referred to as the MOSSI EMPIRE, were a number of different powerful kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
which dominated the region of the upper Volta river for hundreds of years. The kingdoms were founded when warriors from the Mamprusi area, in modern-day Ghana
Ghana
moved into the area and intermarried with local people. Centralization of the political and military powers of the kingdoms begin in the 13th century and led to conflicts between the Mossi kingdoms and many of the other powerful states in the region. In 1896, the French took over the kingdoms and created the French Upper Volta which largely used the Mossi administrative structure for many decades in governing the colony
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Sokoto Caliphate
The SOKOTO CALIPHATE was an independent Islamic Caliphate , in West Africa . Founded during the jihad of the Fulani War in 1809 by Usman dan Fodio , it was abolished when the British defeated the caliphate in 1903 and put the area under the Northern Nigeria Protectorate . Developed in the context of multiple, independent Hausa kingdoms , at its height the Caliphate linked over 30 different emirates and over 10 million people in the most powerful state in its region and one of the most significant empires in Africa in the nineteenth century. The caliphate was a loose confederation of emirates that recognized the suzerainty of the "commander of the faithful ", the sultan or caliph. The caliphate brought decades of economic growth throughout the region. An estimated one to 2.5 million non-Muslim slaves were captured during the Fulani War
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Wadai Empire
The WADAI EMPIRE or SULTANATE (Arabic : سلطنة وداي‎, French : royaume du Ouaddaï; 1635–1912) was a kingdom located to the east of Lake Chad
Chad
in present-day Chad
Chad
and in the Central African Republic . It emerged in the sixteenth century as an offshoot of the Sultanate of Darfur
Sultanate of Darfur
(in present-day Sudan
Sudan
) to the northeast of the Kingdom of Baguirmi
Kingdom of Baguirmi
. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Expansion * 3 Decline * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ORIGINSIn 1635, the Maba and other small groups in the region rallied to the Islamic banner of Abd al-Karim , who led an invasion from the east and overthrew the ruling Tunjur group
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Wassoulou Empire
The WASSOULOU EMPIRE, sometimes referred to as the MANDINKA EMPIRE, was a short-lived (1878–1898) empire of West Africa
West Africa
built from the conquests of Malinke ruler Samori Touré and destroyed by the French colonial army. In 1864, Toucouleur ruler El Hajj Umar Tall died near Bandiagara
Bandiagara
, leaving the then-dominant Toucouleur Empire
Toucouleur Empire
tottering and a number of chiefs rushing to break their own pieces away from the newly weakened federation. By far the most successful among them was Samori Touré of what is now southwestern Guinea
Guinea
. CONTENTS * 1 Army organization * 2 Expansion * 3 The Mandingo Wars * 4 References ARMY ORGANIZATIONSamori's army was well equipped with European firearms and a complex structure of permanent units
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Kingdom Of Sine
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant * Kingdom (biology)
Kingdom (biology)
, a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God
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Shilluk Kingdom
The SHILLUK KINGDOM was located along the banks of the White Nile river in modern South Sudan
South Sudan
. Its capital and royal residence was in the town of Fashoda . According to their folk history and neighboring accounts, the kingdom was founded during the mid-fifteenth century CE by its first ruler, the demigod Nyikang. During the nineteenth century, the Shilluk were affected by military assaults from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and later British colonization in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan . The Shilluk king is currently not an independent political leader, but a traditional chieftain within the governments of South Sudan
South Sudan
and Sudan
Sudan
. The monarchy (the Reth) has been political and religious in nature. The monarch guaranteed social order; his health and the health of the nation were intertwined
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Saloum
The KINGDOM OF SALOUM ( Serer language
Serer language
: Saluum or Saalum) was a Serer /Wolof kingdom in present-day Senegal
Senegal
. Its kings may have been of Mandinka / Kaabu
Kaabu
origin. The capital of Saloum
Saloum
was the city of Kahone . It was a sister kingdom of Sine . Their history, geography and culture were intricately linked and it was common to refer to them as the Sine-Saloum
Sine-Saloum
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 People and language * 3 Commerce and geography * 4 Notes * 5 References HISTORY Apartment of the Maad Saloum
Maad Saloum
(king of Saloum) in 1821. Carte des peuplades du Sénégal de l'abbé Boilat (1853): an ethnic map of Senegal
Senegal
at the time of French colonialism
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