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Delusional Disorder
DELUSIONAL DISORDER is a mental illness in which the patient presents with delusions , but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations , thought disorder, mood disorder , or significant flattening of affect . Delusions are a specific symptom of psychosis . Delusions can be "bizarre" or "non-bizarre" in content; non-bizarre delusions are fixed false beliefs that involve situations that could potentially occur in real life, such as being followed or poisoned. Apart from their delusions, people with delusional disorder may continue to socialize and function in a normal manner and their behavior does not necessarily generally seem odd. However, the preoccupation with delusional ideas can be disruptive to their overall lives. For the diagnosis to be made, auditory and visual hallucinations cannot be prominent, though olfactory or tactile hallucinations related to the content of the delusion may be present
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Genetics
GENETICS is the study of genes , genetic variation , and heredity in living organisms . It is generally considered a field of biology , but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems . The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian friar . Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene . Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes
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Biochemical
BIOCHEMISTRY, sometimes called BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms . By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism , biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life . Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine to genetics are engaged in biochemical research. Today, the main focus of pure biochemistry is on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells , which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues , organs , and whole organisms —that is, all of biology
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Neurotransmitters
NEUROTRANSMITTERS, also known as CHEMICAL MESSENGERS, are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission . They transmit signals across a chemical synapse , such as a neuromuscular junction , from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell , or gland cell . Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into the synaptic cleft , where they are received by receptors on the target cells. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from simple and plentiful precursors such as amino acids , which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps for conversion. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are unknown, but more than 100 chemical messengers have been uniquely identified
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Psyche (psychology)
In psychology, the PSYCHE /ˈsaɪki/ is the totality of the human mind , conscious and unconscious . Psychology
Psychology
is the scientific or objective study of the psyche. The word has a long history of use in psychology and philosophy , dating back to ancient times, and represents one of the fundamental concepts for understanding human nature from a scientific point of view. The English word soul is sometimes used synonymously, especially in older texts. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Ancient psychology * 3 Medieval psychology * 4 Phenomenology * 5 Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
* 5.1 Freudian school * 5.2 Jungian school * 6 Cognitive psychology
Cognitive psychology
* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading ETYMOLOGYThe basic meaning of the Greek word ψυχή (psūkhē) was "life" in the sense of "breath", formed from the verb ψύχω (psukhō, "to blow")
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Psychologist
A PSYCHOLOGIST is a mental health professional who evaluates and studies behavior and mental processes. In order to become a psychologist, a person often completes a graduate university degree in psychology , but in most jurisdictions, members of other behavioral professions (such as counselors and psychiatrists) can also evaluate, diagnose, treat, and study mental processes
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Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders
The DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association
American Psychiatric Association
(APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders . It is used, or relied upon, by clinicians, researchers, psychiatric drug regulation agencies, health insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies , the legal system, and policy makers together with alternatives such as the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders , produced by the WHO . The DSM is now in its fifth edition, DSM-5 , published on May 18, 2013
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Antipsychotic
ANTIPSYCHOTICS also known as NEUROLEPTICS or MAJOR TRANQUILIZERS, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions , hallucinations , paranoia or disordered thought ), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder . They are increasingly being used in the management of non-psychotic disorders. Antipsychotics are usually effective in relieving symptoms of psychosis in the short term. The long-term use of antipsychotics is associated with side effects such as involuntary movement disorders , gynecomastia , and metabolic syndrome . They are also associated with increased mortality in elderly people with dementia . First-generation antipsychotics, known as typical antipsychotics , were discovered in the 1950s. Most second-generation drugs, known as atypical antipsychotics , have been developed more recently, although the first atypical antipsychotic, clozapine , was discovered in the 1960s and introduced clinically in the 1970s
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Specialty (medicine)
A SPECIALTY (or SPECIALITY) in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST
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Socioeconomic Status
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income , education , and occupation. When analyzing a family's SES, the household income, earners' education , and occupation are examined, as well as combined income, whereas for an individual's SES only their own attributes are assessed. However, SES is more commonly used to depict an economic difference in society as a whole. Socioeconomic status
Socioeconomic status
is typically broken into three levels (high, middle, and low) to describe the three places a family or an individual may fall into. When placing a family or individual into one of these categories, any or all of the three variables (income, education, and occupation) can be assessed
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Differential Diagnosis
In medicine , a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features. Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient , or, at least, to eliminate any imminently life-threatening conditions. Often, each individual option of a possible disease is called a differential diagnosis (for example, bronchitis could be a differential diagnosis in the evaluation of a cough that ends up with a final diagnosis of common cold ). More generally, a DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible
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Mental Status Examination
The MENTAL STATUS EXAMINATION or MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION (MSE), is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice. It is a structured way of observing and describing a patient 's psychological functioning at a given point in time, under the domains of appearance, attitude , behavior, mood and affect, speech, thought process , thought content, perception , cognition , insight and judgment . There are some minor variations in the subdivision of the MSE and the sequence and names of MSE domains. The purpose of the MSE is to obtain a comprehensive cross-sectional description of the patient's mental state, which, when combined with the biographical and historical information of the psychiatric history , allows the clinician to make an accurate diagnosis and formulation , which are required for coherent treatment planning
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Psychotherapy
PSYCHOTHERAPY is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction , to help a person change and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy
aims to improve an individual's well-being and mental health , to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills . Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders . There are over a thousand different psychotherapy techniques, some being minor variations, while others are based on very different conceptions of psychology, ethics (how to live) or techniques. Most involve one-to-one sessions, between client and therapist, but some are conducted with groups , including families
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Group Psychotherapy
GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPY or GROUP THERAPY is a form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group. The term can legitimately refer to any form of psychotherapy when delivered in a group format, including cognitive behavioural therapy or interpersonal therapy , but it is usually applied to psychodynamic group therapy where the group context and group process is explicitly utilised as a mechanism of change by developing, exploring and examining interpersonal relationships within the group. The broader concept of group therapy can be taken to include any helping process that takes place in a group, including support groups , skills training groups (such as anger management , mindfulness , relaxation training or social skills training), and psychoeducation groups
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Family
In the context of human society , a FAMILY (from Latin : familia) is a group of people affiliated either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ' ) or some combination of these. Members of the immediate family may include spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters. Members of the extended family may include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, nieces, and siblings-in-law . Sometimes these are also considered members of the immediate family, depending on an individual's specific relationship with them. In most societies, the family is the principal institution for the socialization of children
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Medical Records
The terms MEDICAL RECORD, HEALTH RECORD, and MEDICAL CHART are used somewhat interchangeably to describe the systematic documentation of a single patient 's medical history and care across time within one particular health care provider's jurisdiction. The medical record includes a variety of types of "notes" entered over time by health care professionals, recording observations and administration of drugs and therapies, orders for the administration of drugs and therapies, test results, x-rays, reports, etc. The maintenance of complete and accurate medical records is a requirement of health care providers and is generally enforced as a licensing or certification prerequisite. The terms are used for both the physical folder that exists for each individual patient and for the body of information found therein
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