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Deipnosophistae
The DEIPNOSOPHISTAE is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Ancient Greek : Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner
Dinner
Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco -Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis . It is a long work of literary , historical , and antiquarian references set in Rome
Rome
at a series of banquets held by the protagonist Publius Livius Larensis for an assembly of grammarians , lexicographers , jurists , musicians, and hangers-on. It is sometimes called the oldest surviving cookbook
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Philology
PHILOLOGY is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism , history , and linguistics . It is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist. In older usage, especially British, PHILOLOGY is more general, covering comparative and historical linguistics. Classical philology studies classical languages
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Venus Kallipygos
The VENUS CALLIPYGE, also known as the APHRODITE KALLIPYGOS (Greek : Ἀφροδίτη Καλλίπυγος) or the CALLIPYGIAN VENUS, all literally meaning "Venus (or Aphrodite) of the beautiful buttocks", is an Ancient Roman marble statue, thought to be a copy of an older Greek original. In an example of anasyrma , it depicts a partially draped woman, raising her light peplos to uncover her hips and buttocks, and looking back and down over her shoulder, perhaps to evaluate them. The subject is conventionally identified as Venus (Aphrodite ), though it may equally be a portrait of a mortal woman. The marble statue extant today dates to the late 1st century BC. The lost Greek original on which it is based is thought to have been bronze , and to have been executed around 300 BC, towards the beginning of the Hellenistic era . The provenance of the marble copy is unknown, but it was rediscovered, missing its head, in the early modern era
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Erasistratus
ERASISTRATUS (/ˌɛrəˈsɪstrətəs/ ; Greek : Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
of Syria. Along with fellow physician Herophilus , he founded a school of anatomy in Alexandria
Alexandria
, where they carried out anatomical research. He is credited for his description of the valves of the heart , and he also concluded that the heart was not the center of sensations, but instead it functioned as a pump. Erasistratus
Erasistratus
was among the first to distinguish between veins and arteries . He believed that the arteries were full of air and that they carried the "animal spirit" (pneuma ). He considered atoms to be the essential body element, and he believed they were vitalized by the pneuma that circulated through the nerves. He also thought that the nerves moved a nervous spirit from the brain
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Timachidas Of Rhodes
TIMACHIDAS OF RHODES (Greek : Τιμαχίδας ὁ Ῥόδιος) was an ancient Greek philologist from the island of Rhodes who lived in c. 100 BC. He was known for composing a work entitled Deipna or "Dinners". Timachidas is quoted fourteen times by Athenaeus (once on Rhodian wine) and occasionally by others. REFERENCES * ^ Dalby (2003), p. 328.SOURCES * Dalby, Andrew (2003). Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-23259-7 . This article about an Ancient Greek writer or poet is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This article on a Greek linguist is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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Prosopographical
In historical studies , PROSOPOGRAPHY is an investigation of the common characteristics of a historical group, whose individual biographies may be largely untraceable, by means of a collective study of their lives, in multiple career-line analysis. Prosopographical research has the goal of learning about patterns of relationships and activities through the study of collective biography; it collects and analyses statistically relevant quantities of biographical data about a well-defined group of individuals. This makes it a valuable technique for studying many pre-modern societies. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Notable examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Further reading * 5 External links HISTORYBritish historian Lawrence Stone (1919–1999) brought the term to general attention in an explanatory article in 1971
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Zoilus
ZOILUS or ZOILOS (Greek : Ζωΐλος; c. 400 – 320 BC) was a Greek grammarian, Cynic philosopher , and literary critic from Amphipolis in East Macedonia , then known as Thrace . He took the name Homeromastix (Ὁμηρομάστιξ "Homer whipper"; gen.: Ὁμηρομάστιγος) later in life. According to Vitruvius (vii., preface) he lived during the age of Ptolemy Philadelphus , by whom he was crucified as the punishment of his criticisms on the king; but this account should probably be rejected as a fiction based on Zoilus' reputation. Vitruvius goes on to state that Zoilus also may have been stoned at Chios or thrown alive upon a funeral pyre at Smyrna . Either way Vitruvius felt it was just as well since he deserved to be dead for slandering an author who could not defend himself. Zoilus appears to have been at one time a follower of Isocrates , but subsequently a pupil of Polycrates , whom he heard at Athens , where he was a teacher of rhetoric
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Galen
AELIUS GALENUS or CLAUDIUS GALENUS (/ɡəˈliːnəs/ ; Greek : Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – c. 200/c. 216), often Anglicized as GALEN and better known as GALEN OF PERGAMON (/ˈɡeɪlən/ ), was a prominent Greek physician , surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity , Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy , physiology , pathology , pharmacology , and neurology , as well as philosophy and logic . The son of Aelius Nicon , a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen
Galen
received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher
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Plutarch
PLUTARCH (/ˈpluːtɑːrk/ ; Greek : Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos, Koine Greek: ; c. AD 46 – AD 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen , LUCIUS MESTRIUS PLUTARCHUS, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist , known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia . He is classified as a Middle Platonist . Plutarch's surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers
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Praetorian Guard
In Ancient Rome , the IMPERIAL PRAETORIAN GUARD or PRAETORIAN GUARD were a unit of the Imperial Roman Army formed of elite soldiers initially recruited in Italy . These units originated from the small group of men around the republican magistrates, known under the designation of praetor , and also originated from around roman legion camps where the legion commandant's main tent ( Latin : Prætorium ) garrisoned when engaged in battle campaigns. They were first, hand-picked veterans of the Roman Army in charge of providing close protection security details to the Emperor and accompanied him on active campaign. They also served as secret police protecting the civic administrations and rule of law imposed by the Senate and the Emperor. The title designation was already used during the Roman Republic for the guards of Roman generals since the rise to prominence of the Scipio family around year 275 BC
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Philistion Of Locri
PHILISTION OF LOCRI (Greek : Φιλιστίων) was a physician and writer on medicine who lived in the 4th century BC. He was a native of Locri
Locri
in Italy
Italy
, but was also referred to as "the Sicilian." He was tutor to the physician Chrysippus of Cnidos , and the astronomer and physician Eudoxus , and therefore must have lived in the 4th century BC. He was one of those who defended the opinion that what is drunk goes into the lungs . Some ancient writers attributed to Philistion the treatise De Salubri Victus Ratione, and also the De Victus Ratione, both of which form part of the Hippocratic collection. By some persons he was considered one of the founders of the Empiric school . He wrote a work on materia medica, and on Cookery, and is several times quoted by Pliny , and Galen
Galen

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Homosexuality
HOMOSEXUALITY is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender . As a sexual orientation , homosexuality is "an enduring pattern of emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions" to people of the same sex. It "also refers to a person's sense of identity based on those attractions, related behaviors, and membership in a community of others who share those attractions." Along with bisexuality and heterosexuality , homosexuality is one of the three main categories of sexual orientation within the heterosexual–homosexual continuum . Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they believe that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic , hormonal , and environmental influences , and do not view it as a choice. They favor biologically-based theories , which point to genetic factors, the early uterine environment, both, or the inclusion of genetic and social factors
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Diphilus
DIPHILUS (Greek : Δίφιλος), of Sinope , was a poet of the new Attic comedy and contemporary of Menander (342-291 BC). Most of his plays were written and acted at Athens
Athens
, but he led a wandering life, and died at Smyrna
Smyrna
. He was on intimate terms with the famous courtesan Gnathaena ( Athenaeus xiii. pp. 579, 583). He is said to have written 100 comedies; of these plays, only the titles and associated fragments of fifty-four of them are preserved. He sometimes acted himself. To judge from the imitations of Plautus
Plautus
(Casina from the Κληρούμενοι, Asinaria from the Ὀναγός, Rudens from some other play), he was very skilful in the construction of his plots
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Cratinus
CRATINUS (Greek : Κρατῖνος; 519 BC – 422 BC) was an Athenian
Athenian
comic poet of the Old Comedy . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 2.1 Pytine * 2.1.1 Plot * 2.2 Other plays * 3 Style * 4 Standard edition * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links LIFE Cratinus was victorious 27 known times, eight times at the City Dionysia
Dionysia
, first probably in the mid-to-late 450s BCE (IG II2 2325. 50), and three times at the Lenaia , first probably in the early 430s (IG II2 2325. 121; just before Pherecrates and Hermippus ). He was still competing in 423, when his Pytine took the prize at the City Dionysia; he died shortly thereafter, at a very advanced age, about 97 years (test. 3). Little is known of his personal history. His father's name was Callimedes, and he himself was a taxiarch
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Aeschylus
AESCHYLUS (/ˈiːskᵻləs/ or /ˈɛskᵻləs/ ; Greek : Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos; Ancient Greek: ; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian . He is often described as the father of tragedy. Academics' knowledge of the genre begins with his work, and understanding of earlier tragedies is largely based on inferences from his surviving plays. According to Aristotle , he expanded the number of characters in theater allowing conflict among them; characters previously had interacted only with the chorus . Only seven of his estimated seventy to ninety plays have survived, and there is a longstanding debate regarding his authorship of one of these plays , Prometheus Bound, which some believe his son Euphorion actually wrote. Fragments of some other plays have survived in quotes and more continue to be discovered on Egyptian papyrus , often giving us surprising insights into his work
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