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Deicing
De-icing is the process of removing snow, ice or frost from a surface. Anti-icing is understood to be the application of chemicals that not only de-ice but also remain on a surface and continue to delay the reformation of ice for a certain period of time, or prevent adhesion of ice to make mechanical removal easier.Contents1 Approaches1.1 Trains and rail switches 1.2 Aircraft1.2.1 Chemical de-icing 1.2.2 Infrared
Infrared
heating de-icing1.3 Airport
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Aeroflot
PJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines (Russian: ПАО "Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии", PAO Aeroflot—Rossiyskiye avialinii) (MCX: AFLT), commonly known as Aeroflot
Aeroflot
(English: /ˈɛəroʊˌflɒt/ or /ˌɛəroʊˈflɒt/ ( listen)) (Russian: Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet", pronounced [ɐɛrɐˈfɫot]), is the flag carrier[3] and largest airline of the Russian Federation.[4] The carrier is an open joint stock company that operates domestic and international passenger and services, mainly from its hub at Sheremetyevo International Airport. Aeroflot
Aeroflot
is one of the oldest airlines in the world, tracing its history back to 1923
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
The United States
United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes U.S. EPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.[2] President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
proposed the establishment of EPA and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the President and approved by Congress. The current Administrator is Scott Pruitt
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Ethylene Glycol
Ethylene
Ethylene
glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2. It is mainly used for two purposes, as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and for antifreeze formulations. It is an odorless, colorless, sweet-tasting, viscous liquid. Ethylene
Ethylene
glycol is moderately toxic.[3]Contents1 Production1.1 Industrial routes 1.2 Biological routes 1.3 Historical routes2 Uses2.1 Coolant and heat-transfer agent 2.2 Antifreeze 2.3 Precursor to polymers 2.4 Other uses2.4.1 Dehydrating agent 2.4.2 Hydrate
Hydrate
inhibition 2.4.3 Niche applications3 Chemical reactions 4 Toxicity 5 In the environment 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksProduction[edit] Industrial routes[edit] Ethylene
Ethylene
glycol is produced from ethylene (ethene), via the intermediate ethylene oxide
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Viscous
The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.[1] For liquids, it corresponds to the informal concept of "thickness"; for example, honey has higher viscosity than water.[2] Viscosity
Viscosity
is a property of the fluid which opposes the relative motion between the two surfaces of the fluid that are moving at different velocities. In simple terms, viscosity means friction between the molecules of fluid. When the fluid is forced through a tube, the particles which compose the fluid generally move more quickly near the tube's axis and more slowly near its walls; therefore some stress (such as a pressure difference between the two ends of the tube) is needed to overcome the friction between particle layers to keep the fluid moving
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Infrared
Infrared
Infrared
radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions [1][2][3][4]). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz)[5] Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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Runway
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO), a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft"
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Taxiway
A taxiway is a path for aircraft at an airport connecting runways with aprons, hangars, terminals and other facilities. They mostly have a hard surface such as asphalt or concrete, although smaller general aviation airports sometimes use gravel or grass. Busy airports typically construct high-speed or rapid-exit taxiways to allow aircraft to leave the runway at higher speeds. This allows the aircraft to vacate the runway quicker, permitting another to land or take off in a shorter interval of time. This is usually accomplished by making the exiting taxiway longer, thus giving the aircraft more space in which to slow down, before the taxiways' upcoming intersection with another (perpendicular) taxiway, another runway, or the ramp/tarmac. Most airports do not have a specific speed limit for taxiing (some have). There is a general rule on safe speed based on obstacles. Operators and aircraft manufacturers might have limits
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Airport Apron
The airport apron or apron is the area of an airport where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refueled, or boarded.[1] Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway. However, the apron is not usually open to the general public and a license may be required to gain access. By extension, the term "apron" is also used to identify the air traffic control position responsible for coordinating movement on this surface at busier airports. The use of the apron may be controlled by the apron management service (apron control or apron advisory) to provide coordination between the users. The apron is designated by the ICAO
ICAO
as not being part of the maneuvering area
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Taxiway Bridge
Aircraft bridges, including taxiway bridges and runway bridges, bring aircraft traffic over motorways, railways, and waterways, and must be designed to support the heaviest aircraft that may cross them. In 1963, a taxiway bridge at Chicago O'Hare Airport, one of the busiest airports in the world, was planned to handle future aircraft weighing 365,000 pounds (166,000 kg), but aircraft weights doubled within two years of its construction.[1] Currently, the largest passenger aircraft in the world, the Airbus A380, has a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 575 t (1,268,000 lb). The largest Boeing
Boeing
planes, i.e
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Ammonia
Trihydrogen nitride Nitrogen
Nitrogen
trihydrideIdentifiersCAS Number7664-41-7 Y3D model (JSmol)Interactive image3DMet B00004Beilstein Reference3587154ChEBICHEBI:16134 YChEMBLChEMBL1160819 YChemSpider217 YECHA InfoCard 100.028.760EC Number 231-635-3Gmelin Reference79KEGGD02916 YMeSH Ammonia PubChem CID222
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Snowplow
A snowplow (also snow plow, snowplough or snow plough) is a device intended for mounting on a vehicle, used for removing snow and ice from outdoor surfaces, typically those serving transportation purposes. Although this term is often used to refer to vehicles mounting such devices, more accurately they are known as winter service vehicles, especially in areas that regularly receive large amounts of snow every year, or in specific environments such as airfields. In other cases, pickup trucks and front end loaders are outfitted with attachments to fulfill this purpose. Some regions that do not frequently see snow may use graders to remove compacted snow and ice off the streets
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Temperature
Temperature
Temperature
is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. Temperature
Temperature
is measured with a thermometer, historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius
Celsius
scale, denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale
Fahrenheit scale
(°F), and the Kelvin
Kelvin
scale. The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description
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Dump Truck
A dump truck (known in the UK as a dumper/tipper truck) is a truck used for transporting loose material (such as sand, gravel, or demolition waste) for construction. A typical dump truck is equipped with an open-box bed, which is hinged at the rear and equipped with hydraulic rams to lift the front, allowing the material in the bed to be deposited ("dumped") on the ground behind the truck at the site of delivery
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Sand
Sand
Sand
is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand
Sand
can also refer to a textural class of soil or soil type; i.e., a soil containing more than 85 percent sand-sized particles by mass.[1] The composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz. The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for example, aragonite, which has mostly been created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish
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Gravel
Gravel
Gravel
/ˈɡrævəl/ is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. In the Udden-Wentworth scale gravel is categorized into granular gravel (2 to 4 mm or 0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). ISO 14688 grades gravels as fine, medium, and coarse with ranges 2 mm to 6.3 mm to 20 mm to 63 mm. One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000 pounds). Gravel
Gravel
is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic
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