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Deicing
DE-ICING is defined as removal of snow , ice or frost from a surface. ANTI-ICING is understood to be the application of chemicals that not only de-ice, but also remain on a surface and continue to delay the reformation of ice for a certain period of time, or prevent adhesion of ice to make mechanical removal easier
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Ammonia
Trihydrogen nitride Nitrogen
Nitrogen
trihydride IDENTIFIERS CAS Number * 7664-41-7 Y 3D model ( JSmol
JSmol
) * Interactive image 3DMet B00004 Beilstein Reference 3587154
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
The UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress . President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
proposed the establishment of EPA and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order . The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator , who is appointed by the President and approved by Congress. The current Administrator is Scott Pruitt . The EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is normally given cabinet rank . The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions , and 27 laboratories
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Snowplow
A SNOWPLOW (also SNOW PLOW, SNOWPLOUGH or SNOW PLOUGH) is a device intended for mounting on a vehicle, used for removing snow and ice from outdoor surfaces, typically those serving transportation purposes. Although this term is often used to refer to vehicles mounting such devices, more accurately they are known as winter service vehicles , especially in areas that regularly receive large amounts of snow every year, or in specific environments such as airfields. In other cases, pickup trucks and front end loaders are outfitted with attachments to fulfill this purpose. Some regions that do not frequently see snow may use graders to remove compacted snow and ice off the streets. Snowplows can also be mounted on rail cars or locomotives to clear railway tracks
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Dump Truck
A DUMP TRUCK (known in the UK as a DUMPER/TIPPER TRUCK) is a truck used for transporting loose material (such as sand , gravel , or demolition waste) for construction . A typical dump truck is equipped with an open-box bed, which is hinged at the rear and equipped with hydraulic pistons to lift the front, allowing the material in the bed to be deposited ("dumped") on the ground behind the truck at the site of delivery. In the UK, Australia and India the term applies to off-road construction plant only, and the road vehicle is known as a TIPPER, TIPPER LORRY (UK, India) or TIP TRUCK (AU)
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Taxiway Bridge
AIRCRAFT BRIDGES, including TAXIWAY BRIDGES and RUNWAY BRIDGES, bring aircraft traffic over motorways, railways, and waterways, and must be designed to support the heaviest aircraft that may cross them. In 1963, a taxiway bridge at Chicago O\'Hare Airport , one of the busiest airports in the world, was planned to handle future aircraft weighing 365,000 pounds (166,000 kg), but aircraft weights doubled within two years of its construction. Currently the Airbus 380 is the world's largest airplane in operation, with maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 575 t (1,268,000 lb). The largest Boeing
Boeing
planes, i.e. the current "Project Ozark" versions of the Boeing
Boeing
747-8 , are approaching MTOW of greater than 1,000,000 lb (450,000 kg). Aircraft bridges must be designed for the substantial forces exerted by aircraft braking, affecting the lateral load in substructure design
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Airport Apron
The AIRPORT APRON is the area of an airport where aircraft are parked, unloaded or loaded, refueled, or boarded. Although the use of the apron is covered by regulations, such as lighting on vehicles, it is typically more accessible to users than the runway or taxiway . However, the apron is not usually open to the general public and a license may be required to gain access. By extension, the term "apron" is also used to identify the air traffic control position responsible for coordinating movement on this surface at busier airports. The use of the apron may be controlled by the apron management service (apron control or apron advisory) to provide coordination between the users. The apron is designated by the ICAO as not being part of the maneuvering area . All vehicles, aircraft and people using the apron are referred to as apron traffic
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Infrared
INFRARED RADIATION, or simply INFRARED or IR, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light , and is therefore invisible, although it is sometimes loosely called INFRARED LIGHT. It extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz ), to 1000000 nm (300 GHz
GHz
) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments ). Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared. Like all EMR, IR carries radiant energy , and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon . Infrared
Infrared
was discovered in 1800 by astronomer Sir William Herschel
William Herschel
, who discovered a type of invisible radiation in the spectrum lower in energy than red light, by means of its effect on a thermometer
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FAA Airport Categories
The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a system for categorizing public-use airports (along with heliports and other aviation bases) that is primarily based on the level of commercial passenger traffic through each facility. It is used to determine if an airport is eligible for funding through the federal government's Airport
Airport
Improvement Program (AIP). Less than 20% of airports in the U.S. qualify for the program, though most that don't qualify are private-use-only airports. At the bottom end are GENERAL AVIATION AIRPORTS. To qualify for the AIP, they must have at least 10 aircraft based there, but handle fewer than 2,500 scheduled passengers each year. This means that most aircraft are small and are operated by individuals or other private entities, and little or no commercial airline traffic occurs. Nearly three-quarters of AIP-funded airports are of this type
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Runway
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a RUNWAY is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft ". Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt , concrete , or a mixture of both) or a natural surface (grass , dirt , gravel , ice , or salt )
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Taxiway
A TAXIWAY is a path for aircraft at an airport connecting runways with aprons , hangars , terminals and other facilities. They mostly have a hard surface such as asphalt or concrete , although smaller general aviation airports sometimes use gravel or grass . Busy airports typically construct HIGH-SPEED or RAPID-EXIT TAXIWAYS to allow aircraft to leave the runway at higher speeds. This allows the aircraft to vacate the runway quicker, permitting another to land or take off in a shorter interval of time. This is usually accomplished by making the exiting taxiway longer, thus giving the aircraft more space in which to slow down, before the taxiways' upcoming intersection with another (perpendicular) taxiway, another runway, or the ramp/tarmac. Most airports do not have a specific speed limit for taxiing (some have). There is a general rule on safe speed based on obstacles. Operators and aircraft manufacturers might have limits
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Sand
SAND is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than gravel and coarser than silt . Sand
Sand
can also refer to a textural class of soil or soil type; i.e. a soil containing more than 85% sand-sized particles by mass. The composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz . The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate , for example aragonite , which has mostly been created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish . For example, it is the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean
Caribbean

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Gravel
GRAVEL /ˈɡrævəl/ is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel
Gravel
is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from granule - to boulder -sized fragments. In the Udden-Wentworth scale gravel is categorized into granular gravel (2 to 4 mm or 0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000 pounds). Gravel
Gravel
is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic . Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac ; Russia
Russia
alone has over 400,000 km (250,000 mi) of gravel roads . Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete
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Calcium Chloride
CALCIUM CHLORIDE is an inorganic compound , a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a colorless crystalline solid at room temperature, highly soluble in water. Calcium
Calcium
chloride is commonly encountered as a hydrated solid with generic formula CaCl2(H2O)x, where x = 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6. These compounds are mainly used for de-icing and dust control. Because the anhydrous salt is hygroscopic , it is used as a desiccant
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Exothermic Reaction
An EXOTHERMIC REACTION is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat . It is the opposite of an endothermic reaction . Expressed in a chemical equation : reactants → products + energy CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Examples of exothermic reactions * 3 Other points to think about * 4 Measurement * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWAn exothermic reaction is a chemical or physical reaction that releases heat. It gives net energy to its surroundings. That is, the energy needed to initiate the reaction is less than the energy released. When the medium in which the reaction is taking place gains heat, the reaction is exothermic. When using a calorimeter , the total amount of heat that flows into (or through) the calorimeter is the negative of the net change in energy of the system. The absolute amount of energy in a chemical system is difficult to measure or calculate
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Sidewalk
A SIDEWALK ( American English
American English
) or PAVEMENT ( British English
British English
), also known as a FOOTPATH or FOOTWAY, is a path along the side of a road . A sidewalk may accommodate moderate changes in grade (height) and is normally separated from the vehicular section by a curb . There may also be a median strip or road verge (a strip of vegetation, grass or bushes or trees or a combination of these) either between the sidewalk and the roadway or between the sidewalk and the boundary. In some places, the same term may also be used for a paved path, trail or footpath that is not next to a road, for example, a path through a park
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