HOME  TheInfoList.com 
Deductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.[1] Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premises with conclusions. If all premises are true, the terms are clear, and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true. Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning ("topdown logic") contrasts with inductive reasoning ("bottomup logic") in the following way; in deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules which hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion(s) is left [...More...]  "Deductive Reasoning" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Philip JohnsonLaird Philip N. JohnsonLaird (born 12 October 1936) is a professor at Princeton University's Department of Psychology and author of several notable books on human cognition and the psychology of reasoning.[1] He was educated at Culford School Culford School and University College London University College London where he won the Rosa Morison Medal in 1964 and a James Sully James Sully Scholarship between 1964–66 [...More...]  "Philip JohnsonLaird" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Affirming The Consequent Affirming the consequent, sometimes called converse error, fallacy of the converse or confusion of necessity and sufficiency, is a formal fallacy of inferring the converse from the original statement. The corresponding argument has the general form: P → Q , Q ∴ P displaystyle frac Pto Q,Q therefore P An argument of this form is invalid, i.e., the conclusion can be false even when statements 1 and 2 are true. Since P was never asserted as the only sufficient condition for Q, other factors could account for Q (while P was false).[1][2] To put it differently, if P implies Q, the only inference that can be made is nonQ implies nonP [...More...]  "Affirming The Consequent" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Vincent F. Hendricks Vincent Fella Rune Møller Hendricks (born 6 March 1970), is a Danish philosopher and logician. He holds two doctoral degrees (Dr. Phil and PhD) in philosophy and is Professor of Formal Philosophy and Director of the Center for Information and Bubble Studies (CIBS) at University of Copenhagen, Denmark. He was previously Professor of Formal Philosophy at Roskilde University, Denmark. He is member of IIP, the Institut International de Philosophie.Contents1 Work 2 Controversies 3 Authored and edited books 4 References 5 External linksWork[edit] Hendricks's work deals with modern mathematical and philosophical logic and concentrates primarily on bringing mainstream and formal approaches to epistemology together — from epistemic reliabilism, counterfactual epistemology and contextualism to epistemic logic, formal learning theory and what is called 'modal operator epistemology' [...More...]  "Vincent F. Hendricks" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Ruth M. J. Byrne Ruth M.J.Byrne, FTCD, MRIA (born 1962) is an Irish cognitive scientist and author of several books on human reasoning, including The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality (2005, MIT Press), Deduction (1991, coauthor Philip JohnsonLaird, Erlbaum), and Human Reasoning (1993, with Jonathan Evans & Stephen Newstead, Erlbaum). Information on her scientific articles is available at Reasoning and Imagination Lab She is currently the Professor of Cognitive Science, in the Institute of Neuroscience & School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin [...More...]  "Ruth M. J. Byrne" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Special Special Special or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special Special (album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special [...More...]  "Special" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

International Standard Book Number "ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book Book NumberA 13digit ISBN, 9783161484100, as represented by an EAN13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 9783161484100Website www.isbninternational.orgThe International Standard Book Book Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007 [...More...]  "International Standard Book Number" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Subjective Logic Subjective logic Subjective logic is a type of probabilistic logic that explicitly takes uncertainty and source trust into account. In general, subjective logic is suitable for modeling and analysing situations involving uncertainty and relatively unreliable sources.[1][2][3] For example, it can be used for modeling and analysing trust networks and Bayesian networks. Arguments in subjective logic are subjective opinions about state variables which can take values from a domain (aka state space), where a state value can be thought of as a proposition which can be true or false. A binomial opinion applies to a binary state variable, and can be represented as a Beta PDF ( Probability Probability Density Function). A multinomial opinion applies to a state variable of multiple possible values, and can be represented as a Dirichlet PDF ( Probability Probability Density Function) [...More...]  "Subjective Logic" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Geometry Geometry Geometry (from the Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo "earth", metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Geometry Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths, areas, and volumes [...More...]  "Geometry" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decision Theory Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.[1] Decision theory can be broken into three branches: normative decision theory, which gives advice on how to make the best decisions, given a set of uncertain beliefs and a set of values; descriptive decision theory, which analyzes how existing, possibly irrational agents actually make decisions; and prescriptive decision theory, which tries to guide or give procedures on how or what we should do in order to make best decisions in line with the normative theory. Closely related to the field of game theory,[2] decision theory is concerned with the choices of individual agents whereas game theory is concerned with interactions of agents whose decisions affect each other [...More...]  "Decision Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Decision Making In psychology, decisionmaking (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decisionmaking process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action. Decisionmaking Decisionmaking is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values, preferences and beliefs of the decisionmaker.Contents1 Overview 2 Problem analysis2.1 Analysis paralysis 2.2 Information overload 2.3 Postdecision analysis3 Decisionmaking Decisionmaking techniques3.1 Group 3.2 Individual4 Steps4.1 GOFER 4.2 DECIDE 4.3 Other 4.4 Group stages5 Rational and irrational 6 Cognitive and personal biases 7 Cognitive limitations in groups 8 Cognitive styles8.1 Optimizing Optimizing vs. satisficing 8.2 Intuitive vs. rational 8.3 Combinatorial vs [...More...]  "Decision Making" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Correspondence Theory Of Truth The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.[1] Correspondence theories claim that true beliefs and true statements correspond to the actual state of affairs [...More...]  "Correspondence Theory Of Truth" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Propositional Calculus Propositional calculus (also called propositional logic, statement logic, sentential calculus, sentential logic, or sometimes zerothorder logic) is the branch of logic concerned with the study of propositions (whether they are true or false) that are formed by other propositions with the use of logical connectives. Firstorder logic extends propositional logic by allowing a proposition to be expressed as constructs such as "for every", "exists", "equality" and "membership", whereas in proposition logic, propositions are thought of as atoms.Contents1 Explanation 2 History 3 Terminology 4 Basic concepts4.1 Closure under operations 4.2 Argument5 Generic description of a propositional calculus 6 Example 1. Simple axiom system 7 Example 2 [...More...]  "Propositional Calculus" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Term Logic In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle Aristotle and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. This entry is an introduction to the term logic needed to understand philosophy texts written before it was replaced as a formal logic system by predicate logic. Readers lacking a grasp of the basic terminology and ideas of term logic can have difficulty understanding such texts, because their authors typically assumed an acquaintance with term logic.Contents1 Aristotle's system 2 Basics 3 Term 4 Proposition 5 Singular terms 6 Influence on philosophy 7 Decline of term logic 8 Revival 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksAristotle's system[edit] Aristotle's logical work is collected in the six texts that are collectively known as the Organon [...More...]  "Term Logic" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Equality (mathematics) In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object. The equality between A and B is written A = B, and pronounced A equals B. The symbol "=" is called an "equals sign" [...More...]  "Equality (mathematics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Modus Tollens In propositional logic, modus tollens[1][2][3][4] (or modus tollendo tollens and also denying the consequent)[5] (Latin for "the way that denies by denying")[6] is a valid argument form and a rule of inference [...More...]  "Modus Tollens" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 