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Deductive Reasoning
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.[1] Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premises with conclusions. If all premises are true, the terms are clear, and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true. Deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
("top-down logic") contrasts with inductive reasoning ("bottom-up logic") in the following way; in deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules which hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion(s) is left
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Philip Johnson-Laird
Philip N. Johnson-Laird (born 12 October 1936) is a professor at Princeton University's Department of Psychology and author of several notable books on human cognition and the psychology of reasoning.[1] He was educated at Culford School
Culford School
and University College London
University College London
where he won the Rosa Morison Medal in 1964 and a James Sully
James Sully
Scholarship between 1964–66
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Affirming The Consequent
Affirming the consequent, sometimes called converse error, fallacy of the converse or confusion of necessity and sufficiency, is a formal fallacy of inferring the converse from the original statement. The corresponding argument has the general form: P → Q , Q ∴ P displaystyle frac Pto Q,Q therefore P An argument of this form is invalid, i.e., the conclusion can be false even when statements 1 and 2 are true. Since P was never asserted as the only sufficient condition for Q, other factors could account for Q (while P was false).[1][2] To put it differently, if P implies Q, the only inference that can be made is non-Q implies non-P
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Vincent F. Hendricks
Vincent Fella Rune Møller Hendricks (born 6 March 1970), is a Danish philosopher and logician. He holds two doctoral degrees (Dr. Phil and PhD) in philosophy and is Professor of Formal Philosophy and Director of the Center for Information and Bubble Studies (CIBS) at University of Copenhagen, Denmark. He was previously Professor of Formal Philosophy at Roskilde University, Denmark. He is member of IIP, the Institut International de Philosophie.Contents1 Work 2 Controversies 3 Authored and edited books 4 References 5 External linksWork[edit] Hendricks's work deals with modern mathematical and philosophical logic and concentrates primarily on bringing mainstream and formal approaches to epistemology together — from epistemic reliabilism, counterfactual epistemology and contextualism to epistemic logic, formal learning theory and what is called 'modal operator epistemology'
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Ruth M. J. Byrne
Ruth M.J.Byrne, FTCD, MRIA (born 1962) is an Irish cognitive scientist and author of several books on human reasoning, including The Rational Imagination: How People Create Alternatives to Reality (2005, MIT Press), Deduction (1991, co-author Philip Johnson-Laird, Erlbaum), and Human Reasoning (1993, with Jonathan Evans & Stephen Newstead, Erlbaum). Information on her scientific articles is available at Reasoning and Imagination Lab She is currently the Professor of Cognitive Science, in the Institute of Neuroscience & School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Subjective Logic
Subjective logic
Subjective logic
is a type of probabilistic logic that explicitly takes uncertainty and source trust into account. In general, subjective logic is suitable for modeling and analysing situations involving uncertainty and relatively unreliable sources.[1][2][3] For example, it can be used for modeling and analysing trust networks and Bayesian networks. Arguments in subjective logic are subjective opinions about state variables which can take values from a domain (aka state space), where a state value can be thought of as a proposition which can be true or false. A binomial opinion applies to a binary state variable, and can be represented as a Beta PDF ( Probability
Probability
Density Function). A multinomial opinion applies to a state variable of multiple possible values, and can be represented as a Dirichlet PDF ( Probability
Probability
Density Function)
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Geometry
Geometry
Geometry
(from the Ancient Greek: γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Geometry
Geometry
arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths, areas, and volumes
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Decision Theory
Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.[1] Decision theory can be broken into three branches: normative decision theory, which gives advice on how to make the best decisions, given a set of uncertain beliefs and a set of values; descriptive decision theory, which analyzes how existing, possibly irrational agents actually make decisions; and prescriptive decision theory, which tries to guide or give procedures on how or what we should do in order to make best decisions in line with the normative theory. Closely related to the field of game theory,[2] decision theory is concerned with the choices of individual agents whereas game theory is concerned with interactions of agents whose decisions affect each other
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Decision Making
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action. Decision-making
Decision-making
is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values, preferences and beliefs of the decision-maker.Contents1 Overview 2 Problem analysis2.1 Analysis paralysis 2.2 Information overload 2.3 Post-decision analysis3 Decision-making
Decision-making
techniques3.1 Group 3.2 Individual4 Steps4.1 GOFER 4.2 DECIDE 4.3 Other 4.4 Group stages5 Rational and irrational 6 Cognitive and personal biases 7 Cognitive limitations in groups 8 Cognitive styles8.1 Optimizing
Optimizing
vs. satisficing 8.2 Intuitive vs. rational 8.3 Combinatorial vs
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Correspondence Theory Of Truth
The correspondence theory of truth states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world.[1] Correspondence theories claim that true beliefs and true statements correspond to the actual state of affairs
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Propositional Calculus
Propositional calculus (also called propositional logic, statement logic, sentential calculus, sentential logic, or sometimes zeroth-order logic) is the branch of logic concerned with the study of propositions (whether they are true or false) that are formed by other propositions with the use of logical connectives. First-order logic extends propositional logic by allowing a proposition to be expressed as constructs such as "for every", "exists", "equality" and "membership", whereas in proposition logic, propositions are thought of as atoms.Contents1 Explanation 2 History 3 Terminology 4 Basic concepts4.1 Closure under operations 4.2 Argument5 Generic description of a propositional calculus 6 Example 1. Simple axiom system 7 Example 2
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Term Logic
In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic, syllogistic logic or Aristotelian logic, is a loose name for an approach to logic that began with Aristotle
Aristotle
and that was dominant until the advent of modern predicate logic in the late nineteenth century. This entry is an introduction to the term logic needed to understand philosophy texts written before it was replaced as a formal logic system by predicate logic. Readers lacking a grasp of the basic terminology and ideas of term logic can have difficulty understanding such texts, because their authors typically assumed an acquaintance with term logic.Contents1 Aristotle's system 2 Basics 3 Term 4 Proposition 5 Singular terms 6 Influence on philosophy 7 Decline of term logic 8 Revival 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksAristotle's system[edit] Aristotle's logical work is collected in the six texts that are collectively known as the Organon
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Equality (mathematics)
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object. The equality between A and B is written A = B, and pronounced A equals B. The symbol "=" is called an "equals sign"
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Modus Tollens
In propositional logic, modus tollens[1][2][3][4] (or modus tollendo tollens and also denying the consequent)[5] (Latin for "the way that denies by denying")[6] is a valid argument form and a rule of inference
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