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Decorative Arts
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional. It includes interior design, but not usually architecture. The decorative arts are often categorized in opposition to the "fine arts", namely, painting, drawing, photography, and large-scale sculpture, which generally have no function other than to be seen.Contents1 "Decorative" and "fine" arts 2 Influence of different materials 3 Renaissance
Renaissance
attitudes 4 Arts and Crafts movement 5 See also 6 References and sources 7 Further reading 8 External links"Decorative" and "fine" arts[edit]Surahi, Mughal, 17th Century CE. National Museum, New DelhiThe distinction between the decorative and the fine arts has essentially arisen from the post- Renaissance
Renaissance
art of the West, where the distinction is for the most part meaningful
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Cross Of Lothair
The Cross of Lothair
Cross of Lothair
or Lothair Cross (German: Lotharkreuz) is a crux gemmata (jewelled cross) processional cross dating from about 1000 AD, though its base dates from the 14th century. It was made in Germany, probably at Cologne.[1] It is an outstanding example of medieval goldsmith's work, and "an important monument of imperial ideology",[2] forming part of the Aachen Cathedral Treasury, which includes several other masterpieces of sacral Ottonian
Ottonian
art. The measurements of the original portion are 50 cm height, 38.5 cm width, 2.3 cm depth
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Scholar-bureaucrats
Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats
Scholar-bureaucrats
or Scholar-gentry (Chinese: 士大夫; pinyin: shì dàfū) were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China
China
to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
to the end of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty. After the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
these officials mostly came from the scholar-gentry (紳士 shēnshì) who had earned academic degrees (such as xiucai, juren, or jinshi) by passing the imperial examinations. The scholar-officials were schooled in calligraphy and Confucian texts. They dominated the government and local life of China until the mid-20th century
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Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
(Italian: [ˈdʒordʒo vaˈzaːri]; 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.Contents1 Early life 2 Painting 3 Architecture 4 The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects 5 Social standing 6 Public collections 7 Gallery 8 References and sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksEarly life[edit] Vasari was born in Arezzo, Tuscany.[
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High Renaissance
In art history, the High Renaissance
Renaissance
is the period denoting the apogee of the visual arts in the Italian Renaissance. The period is traditionally taken to begin in the 1490s, with Leonardo's fresco of the Last Supper in Milan and the death of Lorenzo de' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
in Florence, and to have ended in 1527 with the sacking of Rome
Rome
by the troops of Emperor Charles V
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Raphael
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael
Raphael
(/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael
Raphael
was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career
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Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Italian: [leoˈnardo di ˌsɛr ˈpjɛːro da (v)ˈvintʃi] ( listen); 15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
or simply Leonardo, was an Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology, and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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Ink And Wash Painting
Ink
Ink
wash painting, also known as literati painting, is an East Asian type of brush painting of Chinese origin that uses black ink—the same as used in East Asian calligraphy—in various concentrations. For centuries, this form of Chinese art
Chinese art
was practiced by highly educated scholar gentlemen or literati. Names used in the cultures concerned include: in Traditional Chinese shuǐ mò huà (水墨畫), in Japanese sumi-e (墨絵) or suibokuga (水墨画), in Korean sumukhwa (수묵화), and in Vietnamese tranh thuỷ mặc (幀水墨).Contents1 History 2 Philosophy 3 Technique 4 Materials and tools 5 Noted artists5.1 China 5.2 Korea 5.3 Japan6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Main article: Chinese painting Textual evidence suggests that Shan shui
Shan shui
style painting existed during China's Liu Song dynasty
Liu Song dynasty
of the fifth century
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Landscape Art
Landscape
Landscape
painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction in art of landscapes – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works, landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting
Western painting
and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases
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Chinese Ceramics
Chinese ceramics
Chinese ceramics
show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art
Chinese art
and ceramics globally. The first pottery was made during the Palaeolithic era. Chinese ceramics
Chinese ceramics
range from construction materials such as bricks and tiles, to hand-built pottery vessels fired in bonfires or kilns, to the sophisticated Chinese porcelain wares made for the imperial court and for export. Porcelain
Porcelain
is so identified with China that it is still called "china" in everyday English usage. Most later Chinese ceramics, even of the finest quality, were made on an industrial scale, thus few names of individual potters were recorded
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Song Dynasty
The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(/sɔːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasties in the north and was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass. The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern
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John Ruskin
John Ruskin
John Ruskin
(8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects as varied as geology, architecture, myth, ornithology, literature, education, botany and political economy. His writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. He penned essays and treatises, poetry and lectures, travel guides and manuals, letters and even a fairy tale. He also made detailed sketches and paintings of rocks, plants, birds, landscapes, and architectural structures and ornamentation. The elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art gave way in time to plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively
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Arthur H. Mackmurdo
Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (12 December 1851 – 15 March 1942) was a progressive English architect and designer, who influenced the Arts and Crafts Movement, notably through the Century Guild of Artists, which he set up in partnership with Selwyn Image in 1882.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 References 4 External linksEarly life[edit] Mackmurdo was the son of a wealthy chemical manufacturer. He was educated at Felsted School, and was first trained under the architect T. Chatfield Clarke, from whom he claimed to have learnt nothing. Then, in 1869, he became an assistant to the Gothic Revival architect James Brooks. In 1873, he visited John Ruskin's School of Drawing, and accompanied Ruskin to Italy in 1874
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Design Museum
The Design Museum
Design Museum
is a museum in Kensington, London, which covers product, industrial, graphic, fashion and architectural design. The museum operates as a registered charity,[1] and all funds generated by ticket sales aid the museum in curating new exhibitions. Entrance is free to the museum's permanent collection display, "Designer Maker User". Deyan Sudjic
Deyan Sudjic
succeeded Alice Rawsthorn as Director of the Design Museum in 2006.Contents1 History1.1 Shad Thames
Shad Thames
site 1.2 Kensington
Kensington
site2 Galleries 3 Award schemes3.1 Designers of the Year 3.2 Beazley Designs of the Year4 Designers in residence 5 Design Ventura 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] The museum was founded in 1989 by Sir Terence Conran
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Industrial Design
Industrial design
Industrial design
is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production.[2][3] Its key characteristic is that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and defining a product's form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated, often automated, replication.[4][5] This distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where the form of the product is determined by the product's creator at the time of its creation.[6] All manufactured products are the result
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