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Decnet
DECNET is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation , originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11
PDP-11
minicomputers . It evolved into one of the first peer-to-peer network architectures, thus transforming DEC into a networking powerhouse in the 1980s. Initially built with three layers , it later (1982) evolved into a seven-layer OSI -compliant networking protocol. DECnet was built right into the DEC flagship operating system VMS since its inception. Later Digital ported it to Ultrix , as well as Apple Macintosh
Apple Macintosh
and IBM PC
IBM PC
running variants of DOS
DOS
and Microsoft Windows
Windows
under the name DEC PATHWORKS, allowing these systems to connect to DECnet networks of VAX
VAX
machines as terminal nodes
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Local Area Network
A LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building and has its network equipment and interconnects locally managed. By contrast, a wide area network (WAN) not only covers a larger geographic distance, but also generally involves leased telecommunication circuits or Internet links. An even greater contrast is the Internet
Internet
, which is a system of globally connected business and personal computers. Ethernet
Ethernet
and Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
are the two most common transmission technologies in use for local area networks. Historical technologies include ARCNET , Token ring , and AppleTalk
AppleTalk

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VAXELN
VAXELN is a discontinued real-time operating system for the VAX family of computers produced by the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) of Maynard , Massachusetts . As with RSX-11 and VMS , Dave Cutler was the principal force behind the development of this operating system. Cutler's team developed the product after moving to the Seattle , Washington area to form the DECwest Engineering Group, DEC's first engineering group outside New England. Initial target platforms for VAXELN were the "backplane interconnect" computers such as the model code-named Scorpio. At the time there were no VAX microcomputers. When VAXELN was well under way, Cutler spearheaded the next project, the MicroVAX I--the first VAX microcomputer
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VMScluster
A VMSCLUSTER is a computer cluster involving a group of computers running the OpenVMS operating system. Whereas tightly coupled multiprocessor systems run a single copy of the operating system , a VMScluster is loosely coupled : each machine runs its own copy of OpenVMS, but the disk storage, lock manager , and security domain are all cluster-wide. Machines can join or leave a VMScluster without affecting the rest of the cluster. For enhanced availability, VMSclusters support the use of dual-ported disks connected to two machines or storage controllers simultaneously. With OpenVMS now ported to Alpha and IA-64 machines, the facility originally named VAXclustering was renamed to VMSclustering. CONTENTS * 1 Initial release * 2 Later developments * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links INITIAL RELEASEDigital Equipment Corporation first announced VAXclusters in May 1983
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Telnet
TELNET is a protocol used on the Internet
Internet
or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP). Telnet was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 854, and standardized as Internet
Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet
Internet
Standard STD 8 , one of the first Internet
Internet
standards. The name stands for "TELetype NETwork"
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TCP/IP
The INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet
Internet
and similar computer networks . It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the original protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). It is occasionally known as the DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD) MODEL, because the development of the networking model was funded by DARPA
DARPA
, an agency of the United States Department of Defense . The Internet protocol suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received. This functionality is organized into four abstraction layers which are used to classify all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved
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Ultrix
ULTRIX (officially all-caps ULTRIX) is the brand name of Digital Equipment Corporation 's (DEC) discontinued native Unix
Unix
operating systems. While ultrix is also the Latin
Latin
word for avenger, the name was chosen solely for its sound. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 BSD * 1.2 V7m * 1.3 First release of Ultrix * 1.4 Later releases of Ultrix * 1.5 Last release * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links HISTORYThe initial development of Unix
Unix
occurred on DEC equipment, notably DEC PDP-7
PDP-7
and PDP-11
PDP-11
(Programmable Data Processor) systems, and the new operating system was sometimes more popular than DEC's own software
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Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FIBER DISTRIBUTED DATA INTERFACE (FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network . It uses optical fiber as its standard underlying physical medium, although it was also later specified to use copper cable, in which case it may be called CDDI ( Copper
Copper
Distributed Data Interface), standardized as TP-PMD (Twisted-Pair Physical Medium-Dependent), also referred to as TP-DDI (Twisted-Pair Distributed Data Interface). CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Topology * 3 Frame format * 4 Deployment * 5 Standards * 6 Notes * 7 References DESCRIPTIONFDDI provides a 100 Mbit/s optical standard for data transmission in local area network that can extend in range up to 200 kilometers (120 mi). Although FDDI logical topology is a ring-based token network, it did not use the IEEE 802.5 token ring protocol as its basis; instead, its protocol was derived from the IEEE 802.4 token bus timed token protocol
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X.25
X.25
X.25
is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication. An X.25
X.25
WAN consists of packet-switching exchange (PSE) nodes as the networking hardware, and leased lines , plain old telephone service connections, or ISDN connections as physical links. X.25
X.25
is a family of protocols that was popular during the 1980s with telecommunications companies and in financial transaction systems such as automated teller machines . X.25 was originally defined by the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee (CCITT, now ITU-T) in a series of drafts and finalized in a publication known as The Orange Book in 1976. While X.25
X.25
has, to a large extent, been replaced by less complex protocols, especially the Internet protocol
Internet protocol
(IP), the service is still used (e.g
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Ethernet
ETHERNET /ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN). It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3 , and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet
Ethernet
has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as token ring , FDDI and ARCNET . The original 10BASE5 Ethernet
Ethernet
uses coaxial cable as a shared medium , while the newer Ethernet
Ethernet
variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches . Over the course of its history, Ethernet
Ethernet
data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second (Mbit/s) to the latest 100 gigabits per second (Gbit/s)
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IBM Token Ring
TOKEN may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Items of economic value * 2 Computing * 3 Other uses * 4 See also ITEMS OF ECONOMIC VALUE* Token coin , a small, flat, round piece of metal or plastic that can sometimes be used instead of money * Casino token * Bitcoin
Bitcoin
token coins * Knight
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HDLC
HIGH-LEVEL DATA LINK CONTROL (HDLC) is a bit-oriented code-transparent synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). The original ISO standards for HDLC are as follows: * ISO 3309 – Frame Structure * ISO 4335 – Elements of Procedure * ISO 6159 – Unbalanced Classes of Procedure * ISO 6256 – Balanced Classes of ProcedureThe current standard for HDLC is ISO 13239, which replaces all of those standards. HDLC provides both connection-oriented and connectionless service . HDLC can be used for point to multipoint connections , but is now used almost exclusively to connect one device to another , using what is known as Asynchronous Balanced Mode (ABM). The original master-slave modes Normal Response Mode (NRM) and Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM) are rarely used
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OSI Model
The OPEN SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION MODEL (OSI MODEL) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers . The original version of the model defined seven layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that comprise the contents of that path. Two instances at the same layer are visualized as connected by a horizontal connection in that layer
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Network Address
A NETWORK ADDRESS is an identifier for a node or network interface of a telecommunications network . Network addresses are designed to be unique across the network, although some networks allow for local , private addresses or locally administered addresses that may not be unique. In some cases, terminal nodes may have more than one network address; for example, each link interface may be uniquely identified. Further, because protocols are frequently layered , more than one protocol's network address can occur in any particular network interface or node and more than one type of network address may be used in any one network
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FreeBSD
FREEBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD). Although for legal reasons FreeBSD
FreeBSD
cannot use the Unix trademark , it is a direct descendant of BSD, which was historically also called "BSD Unix" or "Berkeley Unix". The first version of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
was released in 1993, and today FreeBSD
FreeBSD
is the most widely used open-source BSD distribution, accounting for more than three-quarters of all installed systems running open-source BSD derivatives. FreeBSD
FreeBSD
has similarities with Linux
Linux
, with two major differences in scope and licensing: FreeBSD
FreeBSD
maintains a complete operating system, i.e
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Open Standard
An OPEN STANDARD is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process). There is no single definition and interpretations vary with usage. The terms open and standard have a wide range of meanings associated with their usage. There are a number of definitions of open standards which emphasize different aspects of openness, including the openness of the resulting specification, the openness of the drafting process, and the ownership of rights in the standard. The term "standard" is sometimes restricted to technologies approved by formalized committees that are open to participation by all interested parties and operate on a consensus basis
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