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DECnet
DECnet is a suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation. Originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11
PDP-11
minicomputers, it evolved into one of the first peer-to-peer network architectures, thus transforming DEC into a networking powerhouse in the 1980s. Initially built with three layers, it later (1982) evolved into a seven-layer OSI-compliant networking protocol. DECnet was built right into the DEC flagship operating system VMS since its inception. Later Digital ported it to Ultrix, as well as Apple Macintosh
Apple Macintosh
and IBM PC
IBM PC
running variants of DOS
DOS
and Microsoft Windows
Windows
under the name DEC Pathworks, allowing these systems to connect to DECnet networks of VAX
VAX
machines as terminal nodes
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Network Protocol
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The protocol defines the rules syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of both.[1] Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging various messages. Each message has an exact meaning intended to elicit a response from a range of possible responses pre-determined for that particular situation. The specified behavior is typically independent of how it is to be implemented. Communication protocols have to be agreed upon by the parties involved.[2] To reach agreement, a protocol may be developed into a technical standard
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Telnet
Telnet is a protocol used on the Internet
Internet
or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP). Telnet was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 854, and standardized as Internet
Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet
Internet
Standard STD 8, one of the first Internet
Internet
standards
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X.25
X.25
X.25
is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication. An X.25
X.25
WAN consists of packet-switching exchange (PSE) nodes as the networking hardware, and leased lines, plain old telephone service connections, or ISDN
ISDN
connections as physical links. X.25
X.25
is a family of protocols that was popular during the 1980s with telecommunications companies and in financial transaction systems such as automated teller machines
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Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
/ˈiːθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).[1] It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3,[2] and has since been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet
Ethernet
has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET. The original 10BASE5
10BASE5
Ethernet
Ethernet
uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet
Ethernet
variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches
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IBM Token Ring
Token Ring local area network (LAN) technology is a communications protocol for local area networks. It uses a special three-byte frame called a "token" that travels around a logical "ring" of workstations or servers
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HDLC
High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented code-transparent synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
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Fiber Distributed Data Interface
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
Fiber Distributed Data Interface
(FDDI) is a standard for data transmission in a local area network. It uses optical fiber as its standard underlying physical medium, although it was also later specified to use copper cable, in which case it may be called CDDI ( Copper
Copper
Distributed Data Interface), standardized as TP-PMD (Twisted-Pair Physical Medium-Dependent), also referred to as TP-DDI (Twisted-Pair Distributed Data Interface).Contents1 Description 2 Topology 3 Frame format 4 Deployment 5 Standards 6 Notes 7 ReferencesDescription[edit] FDDI provides a 100  Mbit/s optical standard for data transmission in local area network that can extend in range up to 200 kilometers (120 mi)
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VAXELN
VAXELN is a discontinued real-time operating system for the VAX family of computers produced by the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) of Maynard, Massachusetts. As with RSX-11 and VMS, Dave Cutler was the principal force behind the development of this operating system. Cutler's team developed the product after moving to the Seattle, Washington area to form the DECwest Engineering Group, DEC's first engineering group outside New England. Initial target platforms for VAXELN were the "backplane interconnect" computers such as the model code-named Scorpio. At the time there were no VAX microcomputers. When VAXELN was well under way, Cutler spearheaded the next project, the MicroVAX I--the first VAX microcomputer
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Local Area Network
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.[1] By contrast, a wide area network (WAN) not only covers a larger geographic distance, but also generally involves leased telecommunication circuits. Ethernet
Ethernet
and Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
are the two most common technologies in use for local area networks. Historical technologies include ARCNET, Token ring, and AppleTalk.Contents1 History 2 Cabling 3 Wireless media 4 Technical aspects 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The increasing demand and use of computers in universities and research labs in the late 1960s generated the need to provide high-speed interconnections between computer systems
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VMScluster
A VMScluster is a computer cluster involving a group of computers running the OpenVMS operating system. Whereas tightly coupled multiprocessor systems run a single copy of the operating system, a VMScluster is loosely coupled: each machine runs its own copy of OpenVMS, but the disk storage, lock manager, and security domain are all cluster-wide. Machines can join or leave a VMScluster without affecting the rest of the cluster. For enhanced availability, VMSclusters support the use of dual-ported disks connected to two machines or storage controllers simultaneously
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OSI Model
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that comprise the contents of that path
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TOPS-10
The TOPS-10 System (Timesharing / Total Operating System-10) was a computer operating system from Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation
(DEC) for the PDP-10
PDP-10
(or DECsystem-10) mainframe computer launched in 1967. TOPS-10 evolved from the earlier "Monitor" software for the PDP-6
PDP-6
and -10 computers; this was renamed to TOPS-10 in 1970.Contents1 Overview 2 Release history 3 TOPS-10 today 4 Implemented programming languages 5 Implemented user utilities 6 Notable games implemented on TOPS-10 7 See also 8 ReferencesOverview[edit] TOPS-10 supported shared memory and allowed the development of one of the first true multiplayer computer games. The game, called DECWAR,[2] was a text-oriented Star Trek
Star Trek
type game
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RT-11
RT-11
RT-11
("RT" for real-time) is a discontinued small, single-user real-time operating system for the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11
PDP-11
family of 16-bit computers
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Terminal Server
A terminal server (also referred to as a serial server or console server network access server) enables organizations to connect devices with an RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485 serial interface to a local area network (LAN). Products marketed as terminal servers can be very simple devices that do not offer any security functionality, such as data encryption and user authentication. The primary application scenario is to enable serial devices to access network server applications, or vice versa, where security of the data on the LAN is not generally an issue. There are also many terminal servers on the market that have highly advanced security functionality to ensure that only qualified personnel can access various servers and that any data that is transmitted across the LAN, or over the Internet, is encrypted
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