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Deck (bridge)
Deck, is the surface of a bridge, and is one structural element of the superstructure of a bridge. It is not to be confused with any deck of a ship. The deck may be constructed of concrete, steel, open grating, or wood. Sometimes the deck is covered with asphalt concrete or other pavement. The concrete deck may be an integral part of the bridge structure ( T-beam
T-beam
or double tee structure) or it may be supported with I-beams or steel girders. When a bridge deck is installed in a through truss, it is sometimes called a floor system.[1] A suspended bridge deck will be suspended from the main structural elements on a suspension or arch bridge
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Beam (structure)
A beam is a structural element that primarily resists loads applied laterally to the beam's axis. Its mode of deflection is primarily by bending. The loads applied to the beam result in reaction forces at the beam's support points. The total effect of all the forces acting on the beam is to produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam, that in turn induce internal stresses, strains and deflections of the beam
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Federal Highway Administration
The Federal Highway
Highway
Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. The agency's major activities are grouped into two "programs," the Federal-aid Highway
Highway
Program and the Federal Lands Highway
Highway
Program. Its role had previously been performed by the Office of Road Inquiry, Office of Public Roads and the Bureau of Public Roads.Contents1 History1.1 Background 1.2 Creation2 Functions 3 Organization 4 Long-Term Pavement Performance Program 5 Administrators 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Background[edit] The organization has several predecessor organizations and a complicated history. The Office of Road Inquiry (ORI) was founded in 1893. In 1905 that organization's name was changed to the Office of Public Roads (OPR) which became a division of the United States Department of Agriculture
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Bridge Bearing
A bridge bearing is a component of a bridge which typically provides a resting surface between bridge piers and the bridge deck. The purpose of a bearing is to allow controlled movement and thereby reduce the stresses involved. Movement could be thermal expansion or contraction, or movement from other sources such as seismic activity. There are several different types of bridge bearings which are used depending on a number of different factors including the bridge span. The oldest form of bridge bearing is simply two plates resting on top of each other. A common form of modern bridge bearing is the elastomeric bridge bearing. Another type of bridge bearing is the mechanical bridge bearing. There are several types of mechanical bridge bearing, such as the pinned bearing, which in turn includes specific types such as the rocker bearing, and the roller bearing
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Track Ballast
Track ballast
Track ballast
forms the trackbed upon which railroad ties (sleepers) are laid. It is packed between, below, and around the ties.[1] It is used to bear the load from the railroad ties, to facilitate drainage of water, and also to keep down vegetation that might interfere with the track structure.[1] This also serves to hold the track in place as the trains roll by
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Railroad Tie
A railroad tie/railway tie/crosstie (North America) or railway sleeper (Britain, Ireland, South Asia, Australasia, and Africa) is a rectangular support for the rails in railroad tracks. Generally laid perpendicular to the rails, ties transfer loads to the track ballast and subgrade, hold the rails upright and keep them spaced to the correct gauge. Railroad ties are traditionally made of wood, but pre-stressed concrete is now also widely used, especially in Europe and Asia. Steel ties are common on secondary lines in the UK;[1] plastic composite ties are also employed, although far less than wood or concrete
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Track (rail Transport)
North America · South America · Europe · Australiav t ePart of a series onRail transportOperations Track Maintenance High-speed railways Track gauge Stations Trains Locomotives Rolling
Rolling
stock Companies History Attractions Terminology (AU, NA, NZ, UK) By country Accidents Railway couplings Couplers by country Coupler conversion Track gauge Variable gauge Gauge conversion Dual gauge Wheelset Bogie
Bogie
(truck) Dual coupling Rail subsidiesModellingv t eThe track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade. It enables trains to move by providing a dependable surface for their wheels to roll upon
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Leflore County, Mississippi
Leflore County is a county located in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,317.[1] The county seat is Greenwood.[2] The county is named for Choctaw
Choctaw
leader Greenwood LeFlore, who signed a treaty to cede his people's land to the United States in exchange for land in Indian Territory. LeFlore stayed in Mississippi, settling on land reserved for him in Tallahatchie County. Leflore County is part of the Greenwood, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area. It is located in the Mississippi
Mississippi
Delta region, with its southern border formed by the Yazoo River. Its riverfront lands were developed before the Civil War as cotton plantations
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Box Girder
A box or tubular girder is a girder that forms an enclosed tube with multiple walls, rather than an I or H-beam. Originally constructed of riveted wrought iron, they are now found in rolled or welded steel, aluminium extrusions or prestressed concrete. Compared to an I-beam, the advantage of a box girder is that it better resists torsion. Having multiple vertical webs, it can also carry more load than an I-beam
I-beam
of equal height (although it will use more material than a taller I-beam
I-beam
of equivalent capacity). The distinction in naming between a box girder and a tubular girder is imprecise. Generally the term box girder is used, especially if it is rectangular in section
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Deflection (engineering)
In engineering, deflection is the degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. It may refer to an angle or a distance. The deflection distance of a member under a load is directly related to the slope of the deflected shape of the member under that load, and can be calculated by integrating the function that mathematically describes the slope of the member under that load. Deflection can be calculated by standard formula (will only give the deflection of common beam configurations and load cases at discrete locations), or by methods such as virtual work, direct integration, Castigliano's method, Macaulay's method
Macaulay's method
or the direct stiffness method, amongst others
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Orthotropic Deck
An orthotropic bridge or orthotropic deck is one whose deck typically comprises a structural steel deck plate stiffened either longitudinally or transversely, or in both directions. This allows the deck both to directly bear vehicular loads and to contribute to the bridge structure's overall load-bearing behaviour. The orthotropic deck may be integral with or supported on a grid of deck framing members such as floor beams and girders. Decks with different stiffnesses in longitudinal and transverse directions are called 'orthotropic'
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Structural Engineering
Structural engineering
Structural engineering
is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to understand, predict, and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings[1] and nonbuilding structures, to develop designs and integrate their design with that of other designers, and to supervise construction of projects on site.[2] They can also be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, and vehicles where structural integrity affects functioning and safety. See glossary of structural engineering. Structural engineering theory
Structural engineering theory
is based upon applied physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different materials and geometries. Structural engineering
Structural engineering
design utilizes a number of relatively simple structural elements to build complex structural systems
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Cable-stayed Bridge
A cable-stayed bridge has one or more towers (or pylons), from which cables support the bridge deck. A distinctive feature are the cables which run directly from the tower to the deck, normally forming a fan-like pattern or a series of parallel lines. This is in contrast to the modern suspension bridge, where the cables supporting the deck are suspended vertically from the main cable, anchored at both ends of the bridge and running between the towers. The cable-stayed bridge is optimal for spans longer than cantilever bridges and shorter than suspension bridges. This is the range where cantilever bridges would rapidly grow heavier if the span were lengthened, while suspension bridge cabling would not be more economical if the span were shortened. Cable-stayed bridges have been known since the 16th century
16th century
and used widely since the 19th
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T-beam
A T-beam
T-beam
(or tee beam[1]), used in construction, is a load-bearing structure of reinforced concrete, wood or metal, with a t-shaped cross section. The top of the t-shaped cross section serves as a flange or compression member in resisting compressive stresses. The web (vertical section) of the beam below the compression flange serves to resist shear stress and to provide greater separation for the coupled forces of bending.[2] The T-beam
T-beam
has a big disadvantage compared to an I-beam
I-beam
because it has no bottom flange with which to deal with tensile forces. One way to make a T-beam
T-beam
more efficient structurally is to use an inverted T-beam with a floor slab or bridge deck joining the tops of the beams
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