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Debt
Debt
Debt
is money owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor. The borrower may be a sovereign state or country, local government, company, or an individual. The lender may be a bank, credit card company, payday loan provider, business, or an individual. Debt
Debt
is generally subject to contractual terms regarding the amount and timing of repayments of principal and interest.[1] A simple way to understand interest is to see it as the "rent" a person owes on money that they have borrowed, to the bank from which they borrowed the money. Loans, bonds, notes, and mortgages are all types of debt
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Option (finance)
In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option. The strike price may be set by reference to the spot price (market price) of the underlying security or commodity on the day an option is taken out, or it may be fixed at a discount or at a premium. The seller has the corresponding obligation to fulfill the transaction – to sell or buy – if the buyer (owner) "exercises" the option. An option that conveys to the owner the right to buy at a specific price is referred to as a call; an option that conveys the right of the owner to sell at a specific price is referred to as a put
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Business Plan
A business plan is a formal statement of business goals, reasons they are attainable, and plans for reaching them. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. Business plans may target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, taxpayer, or larger community. When the existing business is to assume a major change or when planning a new venture, a 3 to 5 year business plan is required, since investors will look for their investment return in that timeframe.[1]Contents1 Audience 2 Content 3 Presentation 4 Revising the business plan4.1 Cost overruns and revenue shortfalls5 Legal and liability issues5.1 Disclosure requirements 5.2 Limitations on content and audience6 Open business plans 7 Uses 8 Not for profit businesses 9 Satires 10 See also 11 ReferencesAudience[edit] Business plans may be internally or externally focused
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Stock Market
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. Examples of the latter include shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms. Stock
Stock
exchanges list shares of common equity as well as other security types, e.g. corporate bonds and convertible bonds.Contents1 Size of the market 2 Stock
Stock
exchange 3 Trade 4 Market participant4.1 Trends in market participation4.1.1 Indirect vs
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Spot Market
The spot market or cash market is a public financial market in which financial instruments or commodities are traded for immediate delivery. It contrasts with a futures market, in which delivery is due at a later date. In a spot market, settlement normally happens in T+2 working days, i.e., delivery of cash and commodity must be done after two working days of the trade date. A spot market can be through an exchange or over-the-counter (OTC). Spot markets can operate wherever the infrastructure exists to conduct the transaction.Contents1 Exchange 2 OTC 3 Examples3.1 Energy Spot4 See also 5 ReferencesExchange[edit] Securities (i.e. financial instruments) and commodities are traded on an exchange using, making, and possibly changing the current market price. OTC[edit] In the over the counter market, trades are based on contracts made directly between two parties, and not subject to the rules of an exchange
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Real Estate
Real estate
Real estate
is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general. Also: the business of real estate; the profession of buying, selling, or renting land, buildings, or housing."[1] It is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand.Contents1 Residential real estate 2 Sales and marketing 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksResidential real estate Residential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure that is available for occupation or for non-business purposes.[2] Residences can be classified by if and how they are connected to neighbouring residences and land
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Retail
Retail
Retail
is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The term "retailer" is typically applied where a service provider fills the small orders of a large number of individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. Shopping
Shopping
generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity. Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase. Retail
Retail
markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity
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Over-the-counter (finance)
Over-the-counter (OTC) or off-exchange trading is done directly between two parties, without the supervision of an exchange. It is contrasted with exchange trading, which occurs via exchanges. A stock exchange has the benefit of facilitating liquidity, providing transparency, and maintaining the current market price. In an OTC trade, the price is not necessarily published for the public. OTC trading, as well as exchange trading, occurs with commodities, financial instruments (including stocks), and derivatives of such products. Products traded on the exchange must be well standardized. This means that exchanged deliverables match a narrow range of quantity, quality, and identity which is defined by the exchange and identical to all transactions of that product. This is necessary for there to be transparency in trading. The OTC market does not have this limitation. They may agree on an unusual quantity, for example.[1] In OTC, market contracts are bilateral (i.e
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Speculation
Speculation
Speculation
is the purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date. In finance, speculation is also the practice of engaging in risky financial transactions in an attempt to profit from short term fluctuations in the market value of a tradable financial instrument—rather than attempting to profit from the underlying financial attributes embodied in the instrument such as capital gains, dividends, or interest. Many speculators pay little attention to the fundamental value of a security and instead focus purely on price movements
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Foreign Exchange Market
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies. This market determines the foreign exchange rate. It includes all aspects of buying, selling and exchanging currencies at current or determined prices. In terms of trading volume, it is by far the largest market in the world, followed by the Credit market.[1] The main participants in this market are the larger international banks. Financial centers around the world function as anchors of trading between a wide range of multiple types of buyers and sellers around the clock, with the exception of weekends. Since currencies are always traded in pairs, the foreign exchange market does not set a currency's absolute value but rather determines its relative value by setting the market price of one currency if paid for with another
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Derivatives Market
The derivatives market is the financial market for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets. The market can be divided into two, that for exchange-traded derivatives and that for over-the-counter derivatives
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Commodity Market
A commodity market is a market that trades in primary economic sector rather than manufactured products. Soft commodities are agricultural products such as wheat, coffee, cocoa, fruit and sugar. Hard commodities are mined, such as gold and oil.[1] Investors access about 50 major commodity markets worldwide with purely financial transactions increasingly outnumbering physical trades in which goods are delivered. Futures contracts are the oldest way of investing in commodities. Futures are secured by physical assets.[2] Commodity markets can include physical trading and derivatives trading using spot prices, forwards, futures, and options on futures. Farmers have used a simple form of derivative trading in the commodity market for centuries for price risk management.[3] A financial derivative is a financial instrument whose value is derived from a commodity termed an underlier.[2] Derivatives are either exchange-traded or over-the-counter (OTC)
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Clawback
A clawback or clawback provision is a special contractual clause typically included in employment contracts by financial firms, by which money already paid must be paid back under certain conditions. The term also is in use in bankruptcy matters where insiders may have raided assets prior to a filing,[1] and in Medicaid, when a state recovers costs of long-term care or covered medical expenses from the estates of deceased Medicaid patients
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Financial Market Participants
There are two basic financial market participant categories[citation needed], Investor vs. Speculator and Institutional vs. Retail[citation needed]. Action in financial markets by central banks is usually regarded as intervention rather than participation.Contents1 Supply side vs. demand side 2 Investor vs. Speculator2.1 Investor 2.2 Speculation3 Institutional vs. Retail3.1 Institutional investor 3.2 Retail
Retail
investor4 See also 5 ReferencesSupply side vs. demand side[edit] A market participant may either be coming from the Supply Side, hence supplying excess money (in the form of investments) in favor of the demand side; or coming from the Demand Side, hence demanding excess money (in the form of borrowed equity) in favor of the Supply Side. This equation originated from Keynesian Advocates
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Institutional Investor
An institutional investor is an entity which pools money to purchase securities, real property, and other investment assets or originate loans. Institutional investors include banks, insurance companies, pensions, hedge funds, REITs, investment advisors, endowments, and mutual funds. Operating companies which invest excess capital in these types of assets may also be included in the term
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Investor
An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.[1] Types of investments include: equity, debt securities, real estate, currency, commodity, token, derivatives such as put and call options, futures, forwards, etc. This definition makes no distinction between those in the primary and secondary markets. That is, someone who provides a business with capital and someone who buys a stock are both investors
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