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De Rerum Natura
De rerum natura
De rerum natura
(Latin: [deːˈreːrũn.naːˈtuːraː]; On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius
Lucretius
(c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience. The poem, written in some 7,400 dactylic hexameters, is divided into six untitled books, and explores Epicurean physics through poetic language and metaphors.[1] Namely, Lucretius
Lucretius
explores the principles of atomism; the nature of the mind and soul; explanations of sensation and thought; the development of the world and its phenomena; and explains a variety of celestial and terrestrial phenomena
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Society
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society
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Infinity
Infinity
Infinity
(symbol: ∞) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number. Philosophers have speculated about the nature of the infinite, for example Zeno of Elea, who proposed many paradoxes involving infinity, and Eudoxus of Cnidus, who used the idea of infinitely small quantities in his method of exhaustion. Modern mathematics uses the general concept of infinity in the solution of many practical and theoretical problems, such as in calculus and set theory, and the idea is also used in physics and the other sciences. In mathematics, "infinity" is often treated as a number (i.e., it counts or measures things: "an infinite number of terms") but it is not the same sort of number as either a natural or a real number. Georg Cantor
Georg Cantor
formalized many ideas related to infinity and infinite sets during the late 19th and early 20th centuries
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Mars (god)
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars
Mars
(Latin: Mārs, [maːrs]) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.[2] He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming. Under the influence of Greek culture, Mars
Mars
was identified with the Greek god Ares,[3] whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars
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Homer
Homer
Homer
(/ˈhoʊmər/; Greek: Ὅμηρος [hómɛːros], Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey, two epic poems which are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad
Iliad
is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy
Troy
by a coalition of Greek kingdoms. It focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and the warrior Achilles
Achilles
lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey
Odyssey
focuses on the journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia
Anatolia
in present-day Turkey
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Ennius
Quintus Ennius
Ennius
(/ˈkwɪntəs ˈɛniəs/; c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic. He is often considered the father of Roman poetry. He was born in Rudiae,[1] formerly a small town located near modern Lecce
Lecce
in the heel of Italy (ancient Calabria, today Salento), and could speak Oscan as well as Latin
Latin
and Greek. Although only fragments of his works survive, his influence in Latin literature
Latin literature
was significant, particularly in his use of Greek literary models.Contents1 Biography 2 Literature 3 See also 4 References 5 Editions 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Very little is reliably known about the life of Ennius
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Hesiod
Hesiod
Hesiod
(/ˈhiːsiəd/ or /ˈhɛsiəd/;[1] Greek: Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.[2][3] He is generally regarded as the first written poet in the Western tradition to regard himself as an individual persona with an active role to play in his subject.[4] Ancient authors credited Hesiod and
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The Muses
The Muses
Muses
(/ˈmjuːzɪz/; Ancient Greek: Μοῦσαι, Moũsai) are the inspirational goddesses of literature, science, and the arts in Greek mythology. They were considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, lyric songs, and myths that were related orally for centuries in these ancient cultures
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Empedocles
Empedocles
Empedocles
(/ɛmˈpɛdəkliːz/; Greek: Ἐμπεδοκλῆς [empedoklɛ̂ːs], Empedoklēs; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Akragas, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for originating the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements. He also proposed forces he called Love
Love
and Strife which would mix as well as separate the elements. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which also dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by the Pythagoreans, Empedocles
Empedocles
was a vegetarian who supported the doctrine of reincarnation. He is generally considered the last Greek philosopher to have recorded his ideas in verse. Some of his work survives, more than is the case for any other pre-Socratic philosopher
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Metonym
Metonymy (UK: /mɛˈtɒnɪmi/, US: /mɪ-/)[1] is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Introduction 3 Meaning relationships3.1 Metaphor
Metaphor
and metonymy 3.2 Examples3.2.1 Places and institutions4 Rhetoric
Rhetoric
in ancient history 5 Jakobson, structuralism, and realism 6 See also 7 References7.1 Notes 7.2 Bibliography8 Further readingEtymology[edit] The words metonymy and metonym come from the Greek μετωνυμία, metōnymía, "a change of name", from μετά, metá, "after, beyond", and -ωνυμία, -ōnymía, a suffix that names figures of speech, from ὄνυμα, ónyma or ὄνομα, ónoma, "name".[3] Introduction[edit] Metonymy and related figures of speech are common in everyday speech and writing
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Axiom
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments. The word comes from the Greek axíōma (ἀξίωμα) 'that which is thought worthy or fit' or 'that which commends itself as evident.'[1][2] The term has subtle differences in definition when used in the context of different fields of study
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Nothing
Nothing is a concept denoting the absence of something, and is associated with nothingness.[1] In non-technical uses, nothing denotes things lacking importance, interest, value, relevance, or significance.[1] Nothingness is the state of being nothing,[2] the state of nonexistence of anything, or the property of having nothing.Contents1 Philosophy1.1 Western philosophy1.1.1 Parmenides1.1.1.1 Leucippus1.1.2 Aristotle, Newton, Descartes 1.1.3 John the Scot 1.1.4 G. W. F. Hegel 1.1.5 Existentialists1.2 Eastern philosophy2 Computing 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksPhilosophy Western philosophy Some would consider the study of "nothing" to be foolish. A typical response of this type is voiced by Giacomo Casanova
Giacomo Casanova
(1725–1798) in conversation with his landlord, one Dr
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Hypothesis
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eA hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research.[1] A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent
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Pope Sixtus IV
The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas,[1] a child's word for "father"),[2] also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest bridge-builder"), is the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.[3] The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the supposed apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom Jesus is said to have given the Keys of Heaven
Keys of Heaven
and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The pope is also head of state of Vatican City,[4] a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within Rome. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.[5] The office of the pope is the papacy
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Human Body
The human body is the entire structure of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body. It comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet. The study of the human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology. The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions
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Visual Perception
Visual perception
Visual perception
is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment. The resulting perception is also known as visual perception, eyesight, sight, or vision (adjectival form: visual, optical, or ocular)
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