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Daoguang Emperor
The DAOGUANG EMPEROR (Chinese : 道光帝; pinyin : Dàoguāng Dì; Wade–Giles : Tao4-kuang1 Ti4; Manchu : ᡩᠣᡵᠣ ᡝᠯᡩᡝᠩᡤᡝ, Doro Eldengge Hūwangdi; ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦ, Төр Гэрэлт Хаан; 16 September 1782 – 25 February 1850) was the eighth emperor of the Manchu -led Qing dynasty and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China
China
, from 1820 to 1850. His reign was marked by "external disaster and internal rebellion," that is, by the First Opium War
First Opium War
, and the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
which nearly brought down the dynasty
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Manchu People
The MANCHU (Manchu : ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff : manju; Abkai : manju; simplified Chinese : 满族; traditional Chinese : 滿族; pinyin : Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles : Man3-tsu2) are an ethnic minority in China
China
and the people from whom Manchuria
Manchuria
derives its name. They are sometimes called "RED-TASSELED MANCHUS", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats. The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1636–1912) were established by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
in China. Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of around 1.404 billion . Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world. Governed by the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities ( Beijing
Beijing
, Tianjin
Tianjin
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, and Chongqing
Chongqing
), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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Taiping Rebellion
Qing victory * Fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
* Diminished power of the central court over the provinces * Rise of irregular provincial armies * Vanquishing of God Worshippers * Lasting damage to the perception of Christianity in China * Sparking other rebellions in
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Emperor Of China
The EMPEROR OF CHINA (Chinese : 皇帝; pinyin : Huángdì ) was the sovereign of Imperial China
China
reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China
China
in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi
Puyi
in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
and the establishment of the Republic of China
China
. The emperor was also referred to as the "Son of Heaven " (Chinese : 天子; pinyin : tiānzǐ), a title that predates the Qin unification and recognized as the ruler of "all under heaven " (i.e., the whole world). In practice not every Emperor held supreme power in China, although this was usually the case. Emperors from the same family are classified in historical periods known as dynasties
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Wade–Giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house ", which may be styled as "royal ", "princely ", "ducal ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China , using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase ")
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Xinjiang
XINJIANG UYGUR AUTONOMOUS REGION (Uyghur : شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى‎; SASM/GNC : Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; Chinese : 新疆维吾尔自治区; pinyin : Xīnjiāng Wéiwú’ěr Zìzhìqū) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (640,000 square miles). Xinjiang contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin , which is administered by China. Xinjiang borders the countries of Mongolia , Russia , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan , Tajikistan , Afghanistan , Pakistan and India
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Meridian Gate
The MERIDIAN GATE or WUMEN (simplified Chinese : 午门; traditional Chinese : 午門; pinyin : Wǔmén; Manchu : ᠵᡠᠯᡝᡵᡤᡳ ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ ᡩᡠᡴᠠ; Möllendorff : julergi dulimbai duka) is the southern and largest gate of the Forbidden City in Beijing , China . Unlike the other gates of the Forbidden City, the Meridian Gate has two protruding arms on either side, derived from ancient que towers traditionally used to decorate the main entrances of palaces, temples and tombs. The gate has five arches. The three central arches are close together in the main, central section; the two flanking arches are farther apart from the three central arches, and are located between the central section and the protruding arms
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Jonathan Spence
JONATHAN DERMOT SPENCE (born 11 August 1936) is a British-born American historian and public intellectual specialising in Chinese history . He was Sterling Professor of History at Yale
Yale
University from 1993 to 2008. His most widely read book is The Search for Modern China, a survey of the last several hundred years of Chinese history based on his popular course at Yale. A prolific author, reviewer, and essayist, he has published more than a dozen books on China. He retired from Yale
Yale
in 2008. Spence's major interest is modern China, especially the Qing Dynasty , and relations between China and the West. Spence frequently uses biographies to examine cultural and political history. Another common theme is the efforts of both Westerners and Chinese "to change China," and how such efforts were frustrated
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Naming Taboo
A NAMING TABOO is a cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons in China
China
and neighboring nations in the ancient Chinese cultural sphere . CONTENTS * 1 Kinds of naming taboo * 2 Methods to avoid offence * 3 Naming taboo
Naming taboo
in history * 4 In other countries * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading KINDS OF NAMING TABOO * The naming taboo of the state (国讳; 國諱) discouraged the use of the emperor's given name and those of his ancestors. For example, during the Qin Dynasty
Qin Dynasty
, Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
's given name Zheng (政) was avoided, and the first month of the year "Zheng Yue" (政月: the administrative month) was rewritten into "Zheng Yue" (正月: the upright month) and furthermore renamed as "Duan Yue" (端月: the proper/upright month)
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Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
ILI or ILI KAZAKH AUTONOMOUS PREFECTURE (Chinese : 伊犁哈萨克自治州 pinyin : Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu; Kazakh : ىله قازاق اۆتونوميالى وبلىسى / Іле Қазақ аутономиялық облысы / İle Qazaq awtonomïyalıq oblısı; Uyghur : ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى/ Ili Qazaq aptonom wilayiti / Или Қазақ аптоном вилайити‎; Dungan : Йили Хасакə Зыҗыҗу, Jili Hasakə Zьⱬьⱬu, اِلِ هَاصَاكْ ذِجِجِوْ) in northernmost Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture in China
China

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Sikh Empire
The SIKH EMPIRE (also SIKH KHALSA RAJ, SARKAR-I-KHALSA or PAñJAB (PUNJAB) EMPIRE), was a major power in the Indian subcontinent , formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh , who established a secular empire based in the Punjab . The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore , to 1849 and was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls . At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north. It was the last major region of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British
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Sino-Sikh War
The SINO-SIKH WAR (also referred to as the INVASION OF TIBET or the DOGRA WAR) was fought from May 1841 to August 1842, between the forces of Qing China and the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
after General Zorawar Singh Kahluria invaded western Tibet
Tibet
. At the time of the war, the Dogra dynasty was a vassal of the Sikh Empire
Sikh Empire
, and so the conflict is also known as the Dogra War. The Sikh army was routed and the Qing counterattacked but were defeated in Ladakh
Ladakh
resulting in an overall military stalemate. The Treaty of Chushul
Chushul
was signed in 1842 maintaining the status quo ante bellum
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Yangihissar
YENGISAR COUNTY is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China . It is under the administration of the Kashgar Prefecture . It contains an area of 3,373 km2. As of the 2002 census, it had a population of 230,000. The county seat is the city of Yengisar, a town that is best known among the local Uyghurs for its handmade knives. The finely-tuned skill of knife making used to be passed down among generations in Yengisar but is slowly dying due to China's strict response to deadly clashes in the Xinjiang region. Yengisar was also historically known as YANGI HISSAR. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Wildlife * 3 Transportation * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYThe Battle of Yangi Hissar took place there, In April 1934, Ma Zhancang led the Chinese Muslim 36th division to attack the Turkic Muslim Uighur forces at Yangi Hissar , wiping out the entire Uighur force of 500, and killing the Emir Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra
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Khotan
HOTAN (Uyghur : خوتەن, Хотән‎, ULY : Xoten, UYY : Hotǝn? ), also transliterated from Chinese as HETIAN (Chinese : 和田; pinyin : Hétián), is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang , an autonomous region in western China. The city proper of Hotan
Hotan
broke off from the larger Hotan County to become an administrative area in its own right in August 1984. It is the seat of Hotan Prefecture . With a population of 322,300 (2010 census), Hotan
Hotan
is situated in the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
some 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) southwest of the regional capital, Ürümqi
Ürümqi
. It lies just north of the Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains
, which are crossed by the Sanju , Hindutash
Hindutash
and Ilchi passes
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