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Daoguang Emperor
The Daoguang Emperor
Daoguang Emperor
(16 September 1782 – 25 February 1850) was the eighth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1820 to 1850. His reign was marked by "external disaster and internal rebellion," that is, by the First Opium
Opium
War, and the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion
Taiping Rebellion
which nearly brought down the dynasty
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Transliterations Of Manchu
There are several systems for transliteration of the Manchu alphabet which is used for the Manchu and Xibe languages. These include the Möllendorff transliteration system invented by the German linguist Paul Georg von Möllendorff, BabelPad
BabelPad
transliteration (used for ease of input, not for formal transcription), the transliteration of the A Comprehensive Manchu-Chinese Dictionary (CMCD), and Abkai Transliteration (former: Daicing Transliteration)
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Emperor Of China
The Emperor or Huangdi (Chinese: 皇帝; pinyin:  Huángdì) was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign
Chinese sovereign
reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
that unified China
China
in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi
Puyi
in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917. The holy title of Chinese emperor was the Son of Heaven
Son of Heaven
(Chinese: 天子; pinyin: tiānzǐ), a title much more elder than the Emperor of China
China
that predates the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
and recognized as the ruler of "All under Heaven" (i.e., the whole world)
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Khotan
Hotan[a] (Uyghur: خوتەن, Хотән‎, ULY: Xoten, UYY: Hotǝn?), also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian (Chinese: 和田; pinyin: Hétián), is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China. The city proper of Hotan
Hotan
broke off from the larger Hotan County
Hotan County
to become an administrative area in its own right in August 1984. It is the seat of Hotan
Hotan
Prefecture. With a population of 322,300 (2010 census), Hotan
Hotan
is situated in the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
some 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) southwest of the regional capital, Ürümqi
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Manchu Alphabet
The Manchu
Manchu
alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu
Manchu
language; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language variably considered as either a dialect of Manchu
Manchu
or a closely related, mutually intelligible, language
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Coronation
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term generally also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, and acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have often included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called; the anointing ritual's religious significance follows examples found in the Bible
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Manchu People
The Manchu[note 1] (Manchu: ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ; Möllendorff: manju; Abkai: manju; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are an ethnic minority in China
China
and the people from whom Manchuria
Manchuria
derives its name.[
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Meridian Gate
The Meridian Gate or Wumen (simplified Chinese: 午门; traditional Chinese: 午門; pinyin: Wǔmén; Manchu: ᠵᡠᠯᡝᡵᡤᡳ ᡩᡠᠯᡳᠮᠪᠠᡳ ᡩᡠᡴᠠ; Möllendorff: julergi dulimbai duka) is the southern and largest gate of the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. Unlike the other gates of the Forbidden City, the Meridian Gate has two protruding arms on either side, derived from ancient que towers traditionally used to decorate the main entrances of palaces, temples and tombs. The gate has five arches. The three central arches are close together in the main, central section; the two flanking arches are farther apart from the three central arches, and are located between the central section and the protruding arms
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Yarkant (town)
Yarkant County or Yeken County (lit. Cliff city[2]) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin. It is one of 11 counties administered under Kashgar Prefecture. Yarkant, usually written Yarkand in English, was the seat of an ancient Buddhist kingdom on the southern branch of the Silk Road. The county sits at an altitude of 1,189 metres (3,901 ft) and as of 2003[update] had a population of 373,492. The fertile oasis is fed by the Yarkand River which flows north down from the Karakorum mountains and passes through Kunlun Mountains known historically as Congling mountains (lit. 'Onion Mountains' - from the abundance of wild onions found there). The oasis now covers 3,210 square kilometres (1,240 sq mi), but was likely far more extensive before a period of desiccation affected the region from the 3rd century CE onwards. Today, Yarkant is a predominantly Uyghur settlement
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Taiping Rebellion
Qing
Qing
victoryFall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Diminished power of the central court over the provinces Rise of irregular provincial armies Vanquishing of the God Worshippers[1] Lasting damage to the perception of Christianity
Christianity
in China[1] Spar
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Jonathan Spence
Jonathan Dermot Spence (born 11 August 1936) is a British-born American historian and public intellectual specialising in Chinese history. He was Sterling Professor
Sterling Professor
of History at Yale
Yale
University from 1993 to 2008. His most widely read book is The Search for Modern China, a survey of the last several hundred years of Chinese history based on his popular course at Yale. A prolific author, reviewer, and essayist, he has published more than a dozen books on China. He retired from Yale
Yale
in 2008. Spence's major interest is modern China, especially the Qing Dynasty, and relations between China and the West.[4] Spence frequently uses biographies to examine cultural and political history
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Kashgar
Kashgar
Kashgar
(Chinese: 喀什市, Uyghur: قەشقەر‎) is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. It is one of the westernmost cities of China, located near the border with Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. With a population of over 500,000, Kashgar has a history of over 2,000 years and served as a trading post and strategically important city on the Silk Road
Silk Road
between China, the Middle East, and Europe.[citation needed] Located historically at the convergence point of widely varying cultures and empires, Kashgar
Kashgar
has been under the rule of the Chinese, Turkic, Mongol, and Tibetan empires
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Naming Taboo
A naming taboo is a cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons in China
China
and neighboring nations in the ancient Chinese cultural sphere.Contents1 Kinds of naming taboo 2 Methods to avoid offence 3 Naming taboo
Naming taboo
in history 4 In other countries 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingKinds of naming taboo[edit]The naming taboo of the state (国讳; 國諱) discouraged the use of the emperor's given name and those of his ancestors. For example, during the Qin Dynasty, Qin Shi Huang's given name Zheng (政) was avoided, and the first month of the year "Zheng Yue" (政月: the administrative month) was rewritten into "Zheng Yue" (正月: the upright month) and furthermore renamed as "Duan Yue" (端月: the proper/upright month). The strength of this taboo was reinforced by law; transgressors could expect serious punishment for writing an emperor's name without modifications
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