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Danube–Iller–Rhine Limes
The Danube–Iller–Rhine Limes
Limes
(German: Donau-Iller-Rhein-Limes) or DIRL was a large-scale defensive system of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
that was built after the project for the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes
Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes
in the late 3rd century AD
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Upper Rhine
The Upper Rhine (German: Oberrhein) is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basle in Switzerland and Bingen in Germany. The river is marked by Rhine-kilometres 170 to 529 (the scale beginning in Konstanz and ending in Rotterdam). The Upper Rhine is one of four sections of the river (the others being the High Rhine, Middle Rhine and Lower Rhine) between Lake Constance and the North Sea. The countries and states along the Upper Rhine are Switzerland, France (Alsace) and the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse. The largest cities along the river are Basle, Mulhouse, Strasbourg, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen and Mainz. The Upper Rhine was straightened between 1817 and 1876 by Johann Gottfried Tulla and made navigable between 1928 and 1977
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Gallo-Roman Culture
The term Gallo-Roman
Gallo-Roman
describes the Romanized culture of Gaul
Gaul
under the rule of the Roman Empire
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes
The Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes
Limes
(German: Obergermanisch-Raetische Limes), or ORL, is a 550-kilometre-long section of the former external frontier of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
between the rivers Rhine
Rhine
and Danube. It runs from Rheinbrohl to Eining on the Danube. The Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes
Limes
is an archaeological site and, since 2005, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Together with the Lower Germanic Limes
Lower Germanic Limes
it forms part of the Limes
Limes
Germanicus.Contents1 Terminology 2 Function 3 Research history3.1 Imperial Limes
Limes
Commission 3.2 Sections4 Literature 5 Maps 6 External links 7 ReferencesTerminology[edit]The Saalburg. Built 1899-1907, the site is the most significant attempt to reconstruct the archeological past
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Lake Constance
Germany, Switzerland, Austria[2] [3]Max. length 63 km (39 mi)[1]Max. width 14 km (8.7 mi)[1]Surface area 536 km2 (207 sq mi)[1]Average depth 90 m (300 ft)Max
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River Danube
The Danube
Danube
or Donau (/ˈdænjuːb/ DAN-yoob, known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe. The Danube
Danube
was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube
Danube
flows southeast for 2,860 km (1,780 mi), passing through or touching the border of Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
before emptying into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries
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Late Antiquity
Late antiquity
Late antiquity
is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
(c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
in the mid-7th century
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Kellmünz
Kellmünz (official: Kellmünz a.d.Iller) is a municipality in the district of Neu-Ulm in Bavaria in Germany.Contents1 Geographic location 2 History2.1 World War II3 Politics3.1 Local council4 ReferencesGeographic location[edit] Kellmünz is located in Upper Swabia at the river Iller, approximately 30 km south of Ulm and 15 km north of Memmingen. History[edit] Kellmünz gets attention among the many settlements in the Iller valley due to its uncommon name, which points to a pre-Germanic past. The name derivates from "Caelius Mons" (engl. Heaven's Mountain). In 15 B.C. the Romans occupied the land between the Alps and the Danube and the province of Raetia was established. The legionaries renamed an initially Celtic settlement to Caelius Mons, probably referring to the Caelian Hill in Rome. After the fall of the Limes in the face of Alemannic pressure, the Romans changed their strategy to protect the Alpine foothills
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Alamanni
The Alemanni
Alemanni
(also Alamanni;[1] Suebi
Suebi
"Swabians"[2]) were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the upper Rhine
Rhine
river. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla of 213, the Alemanni
Alemanni
captured the Agri Decumates
Agri Decumates
in 260, and later expanded into present-day Alsace, and northern Switzerland, leading to the establishment of the Old High German
Old High German
language in those regions, by the 8th century named Alamannia.[3] In 496, the Alemanni
Alemanni
were conquered by Frankish leader Clovis and incorporated into his dominions. Mentioned as still pagan allies of the Christian Franks, the Alemanni
Alemanni
were gradually Christianized during the 7th century
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Limesfall
The Limesfall[1][2] is the name given to the abandonment of the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes (built in 1st century) in the mid-3rd century AD by the Romans and the withdrawal of imperial troops from the provinces on the far side of the rivers Rhine and Danube to the line of those rivers. It is sometimes called the fall of the limes.[3] As a result of a series of informative archaeological finds and the re-evaluation of literary sources, the Limesfall no longer appears to have been a simple historical event, but a multi-layered, complex phenomenon whose historical linkages have not yet been fully understood
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Iller
The  Iller (help·info) (ancient name Ilargus) is a river in Bavaria
Bavaria
and Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
in Germany. It is a right tributary of the Danube, 146 kilometres (91 mi) long. It is formed at the confluence of the rivers Breitach, Stillach
Stillach
and Trettach
Trettach
near Oberstdorf
Oberstdorf
in the Allgäu
Allgäu
region of the Alps, close to the Austrian border
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Julian Apostata
Julian (Latin: Flavius Claudius Julianus Augustus;[a] Greek: Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332[1] – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.[2] A member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julian became Caesar over the western provinces by order of Constantius II in 355, and in this role he campaigned successfully against the Alamanni and Franks. Most notable was his crushing victory over the Alamanni at the Battle of Argentoratum (Strasbourg) in 357, leading his 13,000 men against a Germanic army three times larger. In 360, Julian was proclaimed Augustus by his soldiers at Lutetia (Paris), sparking a civil war with Constantius. However, Constantius died before the two could face each other in battle, and named Julian as his successor. In 363, Julian embarked on an ambitious campaign against the Sassanid Empire
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Gratian
Gratian
Gratian
(/ˈɡreɪʃən/; Latin: Flavius Gratianus Augustus;[1] Greek: Γρατιανός; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 367 to 383. The eldest son of Valentinian I, Gratian accompanied, during his youth, his father on several campaigns along the Rhine
Rhine
and Danube
Danube
frontiers. Upon the death of Valentinian in 375, Gratian's brother Valentinian II
Valentinian II
was declared emperor by his father's soldiers
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