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Dante
Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(Italian: [duˈrante deʎʎ aliˈɡjɛːri]), simply called Dante (Italian: [ˈdante], UK: /ˈdænti/, US: /ˈdɑːnteɪ/; c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages/Early Renaissance. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.[1][2] In the late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia
De vulgari eloquentia
(On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended use of the vernacular in literature
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Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
(historically Romanorum Imperator " Emperor
Emperor
of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(800-1806 CE, from Charlemagne
Charlemagne
to Francis II). The title was almost without interruption held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany.[1][2][3] From an autocracy in Carolingian
Carolingian
times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the prince-electors. The Holy Roman Emperor was widely perceived to rule by divine right by Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
rulers in Europe, and he often contradicted or rivaled the Pope, most notably during the Investiture controversy. In theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares (first among equals) among other Catholic monarchs
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Western Art
The art of Europe
Europe
or Western art encompasses the history of visual art in Europe. European prehistoric art started as mobile rock, and cave painting art, and was characteristic of the period between the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and the Iron Age.[1] Written histories of European art often begin with the art of the Ancient Middle East, and the Ancient Aegean civilizations, dating from the 3rd millennium BC. Parallel with these significant cultures, art of one form or another existed all over Europe, wherever there were people, leaving signs such as carvings, decorated artifacts and huge standing stones
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Julian Calendar
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.[1] It took effect on 1 January
January
45 BC (AUC 709), by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
gains against the mean tropical year at the rate of one day in 128 years. For the Gregorian calendar, the figure is one day in 3,030 years.[2] The difference in the average length of the year between Julian (365.25 days) and Gregorian (365.2425 days) is 0.002%. The Julian calendar
Julian calendar
has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months, as listed in the table below. A leap day is added to February every four years
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Papal States
Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portalv t eThe Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Italian pronunciation: [ˈstato della ˈkjɛːza]; Latin: Status Ecclesiasticus;[2] also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy
Italy
from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria
Umbria
and Romagna, and portions of Emilia
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Politician
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. In democratic countries, politicians seek elective positions within a government through elections or, at times, temporary appointment to replace politicians who have died, resigned or have been otherwise removed from office. In non-democratic countries, they employ other means of reaching power through appointment, bribery, revolutions and intrigues. Some politicians are experienced in the art or science of government.[1] Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people
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John Milton
John Milton
John Milton
(9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England
Commonwealth of England
under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(1667), written in blank verse. Milton's poetry and prose reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day
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Political Theory
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics, synonymous to the term "political ideology". Political philosophy
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Gemini (astrology)
Gemini (pronunciation: /ˈdʒɛmɪnaɪ/ or /ˈdʒɛmɪniː/ JEM-in-eye or JEM-in-ee) (♊)[2] is the third astrological sign in the zodiac, originating from the constellation of Gemini. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits this sign between May 21 and June 21. Gemini is represented by the twins Castor and Pollux.[3] The symbol of the twins is based on the Dioscuri, one mortal and one immortal, that were granted shared half-immortality after the death of the mortal brother (Castor).[4]Contents1 Other 2 Gallery 3 Notes 4 Works cited 5 External linksOther[edit] NASA
NASA
called their two-person space capsule Project Gemini
Project Gemini
after the zodiac, because the spacecraft could carry two astronauts. Gallery[edit]From the medieval Georgian manuscript of a 12th-century astrological treatise.Ornamentation from an altar cloth from 13th-century Germany
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Tempera
Tempera
Tempera
(Italian: [ˈtɛmpera]), also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera
Tempera
also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera
Tempera
paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the first century AD still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting
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Mononymous Person
A mononymous person is an individual who is known and addressed by a single name, or mononym.[1][2] In some cases, that name has been selected by the individual, who may have originally been given a polynym ("multiple name"). In other cases, it has been determined by the custom of the country[3] or by some interested segment. In the case of historical figures, it may be the only one of the individual's names that has survived and is still known today.Contents1 Antiquity 2 Medieval uses2.1 Europe 2.2 The Americas3 Post-medieval uses3.1 France 3.2 Other Europe 3.3 North America4 Royalty 5 Modern times5.1 Mononym-normal 5.2 Asia 5.3 The West6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksAntiquity[edit]NarmerThe structure of persons' names has varied across time and geography. In some societies, individuals have been mononymous, receiving only a single name
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British English
British English
British English
is the standard dialect of English language
English language
as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.[3] Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken,[4] so a uniform concept of British English
British English
is more difficult to apply to the spoken language
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American English
American English
American English
(AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US),[3] sometimes called United States
United States
English or U.S. English,[4][5] is the set of dialects of the English language
English language
native to the United States
United States
of America.[6] English is the most widely spoken language in the United States
United States
and is the common language used by the federal government, to the extent that all laws and compulsory education are practiced in English
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Civil Law Notary
Civil-law notaries, or Latin notaries, are agents of noncontentious private civil law who draft, take, and record instruments for private parties and are vested as public officers with the authentication power of the State
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Papacy
The pope (Latin: papa from Greek: πάππας pappas,[1] a child's word for "father"),[2] also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest bridge-builder"), is the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.[3] The primacy of the Roman bishop is largely derived from his role as the supposed apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom Jesus is said to have given the Keys of Heaven
Keys of Heaven
and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the church would be built. The pope is also head of state of Vatican City,[4] a sovereign city-state entirely enclaved within Rome. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013, succeeding Benedict XVI.[5] The office of the pope is the papacy
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Guido Guinizelli
Guido Guinizelli (c. 1230–1276), born in Bologna, in present-day Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, was an Italian poet and 'founder' of the Dolce Stil Novo
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