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Dalmatia (theme)
The Theme of Dalmatia (Greek: θέμα Δαλματίας/Δελματίας, thema Dalmatias/Delmatias) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
in Southeastern Europe, headquartered at Jadera (later called Zara and now Zadar).Contents1 Origins 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesOrigins[edit] Dalmatia first came under Byzantine control in the 530s, when the generals of Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(r. 527–565) seized it from the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
in the Gothic War
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Dalmatia (Roman Province)
Dalmatia
Dalmatia
was a Roman province. Its name is derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae, which lived in the central area of the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It encompassed the northern part of present-day Albania, much of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo
Kosovo
and Serbia, thus covering an area significantly larger than the current Croatian region of Dalmatia
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Macedonian Dynasty
The Macedonian dynasty
Macedonian dynasty
ruled the Byzantine Empire from 867 to 1056, following the Amorian dynasty. During this period, the Byzantine state reached its greatest expanse since the Muslim conquests, and the Macedonian Renaissance
Macedonian Renaissance
in letters and arts began. The dynasty was named after its founder, Basil I the Macedonian
Basil I the Macedonian
who came from the Theme of Macedonia which at the time was part of Thrace.Contents1 Origins 2 List of rulers2.1 Non-dynastic3 Family tree 4 See also 5 References 6 SourcesOrigins[edit] See also: Basil I
Basil I
§ From peasant to emperor Claims have been made for the dynasty's founder being of Armenian,[1][2] (hence the dynasty is also referred to by at least one author as the Armenian Dynasty[3]) Slavic,[4][5] or indeed "Armeno-Slavonic"[6] descent
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Strategos
Strategos
Strategos
or Strategus, plural strategoi, (Greek: στρατηγός, pl. στρατηγοί; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general. In the Hellenistic world
Hellenistic world
and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
the term was also used to describe a military governor. In the modern Hellenic Army
Hellenic Army
it is the highest officer rank.Contents1 Etymology 2 Classical Greece 3 Hellenistic and Roman use 4 Byzantine use 5 In Messina 6 Modern use 7 Fictional uses 8 References 9 Sources 10 External linksEtymology[edit] Strategos
Strategos
is a compound of two Greek words: stratos and agos. Stratos (στρατός) means army, literally "that which is spread out", coming from the proto-Indo-European root *stere- "to spread"
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Basil I The Macedonian
Basil I, called the Macedonian (Greek: Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios ō Makedṓn; 811 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
who reigned from 867 to 886. Born a simple peasant in the theme of Macedonia, he rose in the Imperial court, and usurped the Imperial throne from Emperor Michael III
Michael III
(r. 842–867). Despite his humble origins, he showed great ability in running the affairs of state, leading to a revival of Imperial power and a renaissance of Byzantine
Byzantine
art
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Niketas Oryphas
Niketas Oryphas or Oöryphas (Greek: Νικήτας ὁ Ὀρύφας or Ὠορυφᾶς, fl. 860–873)[1] was a distinguished Byzantine official, patrikios,[2] and admiral under the Byzantine emperors Michael III
Michael III
(r. 842–867) and Basil I the Macedonian
Basil I the Macedonian
(r. 867–886), who achieved several naval victories against the Cretan Saracen raiders.Contents1 Biography1.1 Under Michael III 1.2 Under Basil the Macedonian2 References 3 SourcesBiography[edit] Under Michael III[edit]Saracen corsairs, from the Madrid Skylitzes
Madrid Skylitzes
manuscript.Nothing is known of Niketas Ooryphas's early life
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Zdeslav Of Croatia
Zdeslav (Croatian pronunciation: [zdêslaʋ], Latin: Sedesclavus) was a duke (Croatian: knez) of the Duchy of Croatia
Duchy of Croatia
in 878–879. He was from the House of Trpimirović.[1] Biography[edit] Zdeslav was the son of Trpimir I. After his father's death in 864, an uprising was launched by a powerful Croatian nobleman from Knin-Domagoj, and Zdeslav was exiled with his brothers, Petar and Muncimir to Constantinople.[2] Domagoj died in 876, and was succeeded by his son
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Carolingian Empire
The Carolingian Empire
Empire
(800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe
Europe
during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire. After a civil war (840–43) following the death of Emperor Louis the Pious, the empire was divided into autonomous kingdoms, with one king still recognised as emperor, but with little authority outside his own kingdom
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Republic Of Venice
The Republic of Venice
Venice
(Italian: Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Venetian: Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance. The Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy
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Pietro Tradonico
Pietro Tradonico (Latin: Petrus Tradonicus; c. 800 - 13 September 864) was Doge of Venice
Doge of Venice
from 836 to 864. He was, according to tradition, the thirteenth doge, though historically he is only the eleventh. His election broke the power of the Participazio family. History[edit] An Istrian native, he was perhaps born in the late eighth or early ninth century. His family, originally from Pula, had come to Rialto from Jesolo. He was illiterate and thus signed many state documents with a signum manus. He was a warrior, not an administrator. At his election in 836 he nominated his son Giovanni as co-regent, continuing the process begun a century earlier of establishing a hereditary dukedom with dynastic succession
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Tomislav Of Croatia
Tomislav (pronounced [tǒmislaʋ], Latin: Tamisclaus) was the first King of Croatia. He became Duke of Croatia
Duke of Croatia
in c. 910, was elevated to kingship by 925 and reigned until 928. At the time of his rule, Croatia
Croatia
forged an alliance with the Byzantines during their struggle with the Bulgarian Empire, with whom Croatia
Croatia
eventually went to war that culminated in the decisive Battle of the Bosnian Highlands in 926. To the north there were often conflicts with the Principality of Hungary. Croatia
Croatia
kept its borders and to some extent expanded on the disintegrated Pannonian Duchy. Tomislav attended the Church Council of Split in 925, convened by Pope John X to discuss the use of Slavic language
Slavic language
in liturgy and the ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Croatia
Croatia
and the Byzantine Theme of Dalmatia
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Croatian–Bulgarian Wars
The Croatian–Bulgarian Wars were a series of conflicts that erupted three times during the 9th and 10th centuries between the medieval realms of Croatia
Croatia
and Bulgaria. During these wars, Croatia
Croatia
formed alliances with Eastern Francia
Eastern Francia
and Byzantium against the Bulgarian Empire.Contents1 First war 2 Second war 3 Third war 4 FootnotesFirst war[edit]Campaigns of Boris I (852–889)During the middle of the 9th century, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was the dominant power in the central, eastern, and northern Balkans. In 854, the Bulgarian ruler Boris I forged an official alliance with the Moravian prince Rastislav against Louis the German
Louis the German
of East Francia
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Archbishopric Of Split (early Medieval)
The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Archdiocese
Archdiocese
of Split- Makarska
Makarska
(Croatian: Splitsko-makarska nadbiskupija; Latin: Archidioecesis Spalatensis-Macarscensis) is a Metropolitan archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
church in Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro.[1][2] The diocese was established in the 3rd century AD and was made an archdiocese and metropolitan see in the 10th century. The modern diocese was erected in 1828, when the historical archdiocese of Salona was combined with the Diocese of Makarska. It was elevated as an archdiocese and metropolitan see in 1969, restoring the earlier status of the archdiocese of Split, as it is also known
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Charlemagne
Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(/ˈʃɑːrləmeɪn/) or Charles
Charles
the Great[a] (2 April 742[1][b] – 28 January 814), numbered Charles
Charles
I, was King of the Franks
Franks
from 768, King of the Lombards
Lombards
from 774 and Holy Roman Emperor from 800. He united much of western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. He was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
three centuries earlier.[2] The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian
Carolingian
Empire
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Archdiocese Of Nin
This is a list of the bishops of Nin, named after the town of Nin, Croatia. The Bishopric was most likely founded in the middle of the 9th century.[1][2][3]Contents1 List 2 References2.1 Sources3 External linksList[edit]Bishop Office NotesTheodosius 879 [4] Listed by Daniele Farlati, Pius Basilius Gams, Carlo F. Bianchi, Ivan A. Gurato and the official Catholic schematisms.[4]Alfredus c. 890 [4]Gregoriusc. 900–929 Gregory was the bishop of Nin and as such was under strong protection of King Tomislav. At the Synod in 925, held in Split, Gregory lost to the Archbishop of Split, he was offered the Sisak Bishopric, but he refused. After the conclusions of the first Synod Gregory complained again in 927/8 but was rejected and his Nin Bishopric was abolished, Gregory himself being sent off to the Skradin Bishopric, after which he disappears from the annals of history.[citation needed]AbolishedAndreas c. 1050–1072Forminus fl. 1075Gregorius fl
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Pietro II Orseolo
Orseolo, the name of a Venetian family, descendant of dux Orso Ipato and his son Teodato Ipato, three members of which filled the office of doge. Pietro I Orseolo
Pietro I Orseolo
(c. 928–997) acted as ambassador to the emperor Otto I
Otto I
before he was elected doge in August 976. Just previous to this event part of Venice
Venice
had been burned down and Pietro began the rebuilding of St. Mark's Basilica
St. Mark's Basilica
and the ducal palace. He is chiefly celebrated, however, for his piety and his generosity, and after holding office for two years he left Venice
Venice
secretly and retired to a monastery in Aquitaine, where he passed his remaining days. He was canonized in 1731. Pietro II Orseolo (died 1009), a son of Pietro I Orseolo, was himself elected to this office in 991
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