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Dale W. Jorgenson
Dale Weldeau Jorgenson (born May 7, 1933, in Bozeman, Montana) is the Samuel W. Morris University Professor at Harvard University, teaching in the Department of Economics and John F. Kennedy School of Government. He served as Chairman of the Department of Economics from 1994 to 1997.Contents1 Awards and memberships 2 Research 3 Notes 4 External linksAwards and memberships[edit] Jorgenson has been honored with membership in the American Philosophical Society (1998), the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (1989), the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1978), and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1969). He was elected to Fellowship in the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1982), the American Statistical Association (1965), and the Econometric Society (1964)
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Sales Tax
A sales tax is a tax paid to a governing body for the sales of certain goods and services. Usually laws allow (or require) the seller to collect funds for the tax from the consumer at the point of purchase. When a tax on goods or services is paid to a governing body directly by a consumer, it is usually called a use tax. Often laws provide for the exemption of certain goods or services from sales and use tax.Contents1 Types 2 Effects2.1 Enforcement of tax on remote sales 2.2 History 2.3 Early examples 2.4 In the United States 2.5 In Canada3 Sales tax
Sales tax
avoidance 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTypes[edit]Cash register receipt showing sales tax of 8.5%Conventional or retail sales tax is levied on the sale of a good to its final end user and is charged every time that item is sold retail. Sales to businesses that later resell the goods are not charged the tax
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Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University
is a private Ivy League
Ivy League
research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Established in 1636 and named for clergyman John Harvard (its first benefactor), its history, influence, and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities.[8] Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning,[9] and the Harvard Corporation
Harvard Corporation
(formally, the President and Fellows of Harvard College) is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, and by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites.[10][11] Following the American Civil War, President Charles W
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Tax Reform
Tax
Tax
reform is the process of changing the way taxes are collected or managed by the government and is usually undertaken to improve tax administration or to provide economic or social benefits.[1] Tax reform can include reducing the level of taxation of all people by the government, making the tax system more progressive or less progressive, or simplifying the tax system and making the system more understandable or more accountable. Numerous organizations have been set up to reform tax systems worldwide, often with the intent to reform income taxes or value added taxes into something considered more economically liberal
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Global Warming
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.[1][2] Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is warming.[3][4][5] Many of the observed changes since the 1950s are unprecedented in the instrumental temperature record which extends back to the mid-19th century, and in paleoclimate proxy records covering thousands of years.[6] In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Climate
Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report concluded that "It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."[7] The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide
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Greenhouse Gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.[1] The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone
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Carbon Tax
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.[1] It is a form of carbon pricing. Revenue obtained via the tax is however not (always) used to compensate the carbon emissions on which the tax is levied (see implementation). Carbon
Carbon
is present in every hydrocarbon fuel (coal, petroleum, and natural gas) and converted to carbon dioxide (CO 2) and other products when combusted. In contrast, non-combustion energy sources—wind, sunlight, geothermal, hydropower, and nuclear—do not convert hydrocarbons to CO 2
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Society For Economic Measurement (SEM)
The Society for Economic Measurement, or SEM, is a scientific learned society in the field of economics. It was founded on August 24, 2013 by William A. Barnett in order to "promote research on economic measurement, using advanced tools from economic theory, econometrics, aggregation theory, experimental economics, mathematics, and statistics".[3]. Nobel Laureate James Heckman will take over as the society's second president in 2019 for a three year term in office. The goal of the SEM is to promote in economics--given the constraints of a social science--the implementation of the strict rules of measurement and data gathering standards used in the physical sciences
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Household
A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.[1] A single dwelling will be considered to contain multiple households if either meals or living space are not shared. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models, and is important to the fields of economics and inheritance.[2] Household models include the family, varieties of blended families, share housing, group homes, boarding houses, houses in multiple occupation (UK), and a single room occupancy (US)
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United States National Academy Of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
(NAS) is a United States
United States
nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering
Engineering
(NAE) and the National Academy of Medicine (NAM). As a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academies is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science, engineering, and medicine
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United States National Research Council
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Medicine
(also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific National Academy of the United States. The name is used interchangeably in two senses: (1) as an umbrella term for its three quasi-independent honorific member organizations (the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering
National Academy of Engineering
(NAE), and the National Academy of Medicine
National Academy of Medicine
(NAM)). And (2) as the brand for studies and reports issued by the operating arm of the three academies, the National Research Council (NRC). The NRC was first formed in 1916 as an activity of the NAS
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Uppsala University
Uppsala
Uppsala
University
University
(Swedish: Uppsala
Uppsala
universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
still in operation, founded in 1477.[4] It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings.[5] The university uses "Gratiae veritas naturae" as its motto and embraces natural sciences. The university rose to pronounced significance during the rise of Sweden
Sweden
as a great power at the end of the 16th century and was then given a relative financial stability with the large donation of King Gustavus Adolphus in the early 17th century
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John F. Kennedy School Of Government
The John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
School of Government
Government
at Harvard University
Harvard University
(also known as Harvard Kennedy School and HKS)[1] is a public policy and public administration school, of Harvard University
Harvard University
in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. The school offers master's degrees in public policy, public administration, and international development, grants several doctoral degrees, and many executive education programs. It conducts research in subjects relating to politics, government, international affairs, and economics. It has close ties to the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA).[2] The School's primary campus is located on John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Street in Cambridge
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Research Papers In Economics
Research
Research
Papers in Economics
Economics
(RePEc) is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers in many countries to enhance the dissemination of research in economics. The heart of the project is a decentralized database of working papers, preprints, journal articles, and software components. The project started in 1997.[1] Its precursor NetEc dates back to 1993.Contents1 Overview 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksOverview[edit] Sponsored by the Research
Research
Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis and using its IDEAS database, RePEc provides links to over 1,200,000 full text articles. Most contributions are freely downloadable, but copyright remains with the author or copyright holder
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Efficient Taxation Of Income
The Efficient Taxation
Taxation
of Income is an approach to taxation that would apply different tax rates for property-type income and earned income from work. Earned income would be taxed at a flat rate of 10%, while property-type income would be taxed at 30%. The plan was created by Dale Jorgenson, Samuel W
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Total Factor Productivity
In economics, total-factor productivity (TFP), also called multi-factor productivity, is the portion of output not explained by traditionally measured inputs of labor and capital used in production.[1] TFP is calculated by dividing output by the weighted average of labor and capital input, with the standard weighting of 0.7 for labor and 0.3 for capital.[2] If all inputs are accounted for, then total factor productivity (TFP) can be taken as a measure of an economy’s long-term technological change or technological dynamism.[citation needed]Contents1 Background 2 Calculation 3 Estimation and refinements 4 Critiques 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksBackground[edit] Technology growth and efficiency are regarded as two of the biggest sub-sections of Total Factor Productivity, the former possessing "special" inherent features such as positive externalities and non-rivalness which enhance its position as a driver of economic growth.[citation neede
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