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Dakota Language
Dakota (Dakhótiyapi, Dakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Dakhota, is a Siouan language spoken by the Dakota people
Dakota people
of the Sioux
Sioux
tribes. Dakota is closely related to and mutually intelligible with the Lakota language
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1][a] .mw-parser-ou
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Glottal Consonant
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the glottal fricative, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have, while some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. For example, in Literary Arabic, most words are formed from a root C-C-C consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/
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Back Vowel
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages. The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Back vowels are sometimes also called dark vowels because they are perceived as sounding darker than the front vowels.[1] Near-back vowels are essentially a type of back vowels; no language is known to contrast back and near-back vowels based on backness alone.Contents1 Articulation 2 Partial list 3 See also 4 ReferencesArticulation[edit] In their articulation, back vowels do not form a single category, but may be either raised vowels such as [u] or retracted vowels such as [ɑ].[2] Unrounded back vowels are typically centralized, that is, near-back in their articulation
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Labial Consonant
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. The two common labial articulations are bilabials, articulated using both lips, and labiodentals, articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English. A third labial articulation is dentolabials, articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth (the reverse of labiodental), normally only found in pathological speech. Generally precluded are linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals, though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants.[clarification needed] The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops, [m], [p], and [b], are bilabial and the fricatives, [f], and [v], are labiodental
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Labialization
Labialization
Labialization
is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded. The most common labialized consonants are labialized velars
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Dental Consonant
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as /t/, /d/, /n/, and /l/ in some languages. Dentals are usually distinguished from sounds in which contact is made with the tongue and the gum ridge, as in English (see alveolar consonant) because of the acoustic similarity of the sounds and the fact that in the Roman alphabet, they are generally written using the same symbols (like t, d, n). In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the diacritic for dental consonant is U+032A ◌̪ COMBINING BRIDGE BELOW.Contents1 Cross-linguistically 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 SourcesCross-linguistically[edit] For many languages, such as Albanian, Irish and Russian, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants
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Alveolar Consonant
Alveolar consonants (/ælˈviːələr, ˌælviˈoʊlər/) are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue (the apical consonants), as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip (the "blade" of the tongue; called laminal consonants), as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often mistakenly called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. However, it is the rearmost point of contact that defines the place of articulation; this is where the oral cavity ends, and it is the resonant space of the oral cavity that gives consonants and vowels their characteristics. The International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants
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Palatal Consonant
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). Consonants with the tip of the tongue curled back against the palate are called retroflex.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Distinction from palatalized consonants and consonant clusters 3 Examples 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] The most common type of palatal consonant is the extremely common approximant [j], which ranks as among the ten most common sounds in the world's languages.[citation needed] The nasal [ɲ] is also common, occurring in around 35 percent of the world's languages,[1] in most of which its equivalent obstruent is not the stop [c], but the affricate [t͡ʃ]
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Palatalization (phonetics)
In phonetics, palatalization (/ˌpælətəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/, also US: /-lɪˈzeɪʃ-/) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate. A consonant pronounced this way is called a palatalized consonant. Palatalized consonants have palatal secondary articulation, or two places of articulation, one of which is palatal. They contrast with palatal consonants, which have palatal primary articulation. Palatalized consonants are pronounced as if followed very closely by the palatal approximant [j], the sound of y in yellow. For example, in the Polish word kiedy "when", the letters ki represent a palatalized [k], transcribed as [kʲ]
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Velar Consonant
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum). Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsum are not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation, shifting their articulation back or to the front depending on the quality of adjacent vowels.[1] They often become automatically fronted, that is partly or completely palatal before a following front vowel, and retracted, that is partly or completely uvular before back vowels. Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in keen or cube) are sometimes referred to as palatovelars.[citation needed][by whom?] Many languages also have labialized velars, such as [kʷ], in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips. There are also labial–velar consonants, which are doubly articulated at the velum and at the lips, such as [k͡p]
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Uvular Consonant
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. Uvulars may be stops, fricatives, nasals, trills, or approximants, though the IPA does not provide a separate symbol for the approximant, and the symbol for the voiced fricative is used instead. Uvular affricates can certainly be made but are rare: they occur in some southern High-German dialects, as well as in a few African and Native American languages
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Nasal Consonant
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. Examples of nasals in English are [n] and [m], in words such as nose and mouth. Nasal occlusives are nearly universal in human languages. There are also other kinds of nasal consonants in some languages.Contents1 Definition 2 Voiceless nasals 3 Other kinds of nasal consonant 4 Languages without nasals 5 Lack of phonemic nasals 6 Lack of phonetic nasals 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 BibliographyDefinition[edit] Nearly all nasal consonants are nasal occlusives, in which air escapes through the nose but not through the mouth, as it is blocked (occluded) by the lips or tongue. The oral cavity still acts as a resonance chamber for the sound
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Nakota
The term Nakota (or Nakoda or also Nakona[1]) is the endonym used by those native peoples of North America
North America
who usually go by the name of Assiniboine (or Hohe), in the United States, and of Stoney, in Canada. They are Dakotan-speaking[2] tribes that broke away from the main branches of the Sioux
Sioux
nation in earlier times. They moved farther from the original territory of the woodlands of present-day Minnesota
Minnesota
into the northern and northwestern regions: Montana
Montana
and North Dakota
North Dakota
of the present-day United States
United States
and Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta
Alberta
of present-day Canada. Later they became competitors for resources and enemies of their former language-family "allies"
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Stop Consonant
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be made with the tongue blade ([t], [d]) or body ([k], [ɡ]), lips ([p], [b]), or glottis ([ʔ]). Stops contrast with nasals, where the vocal tract is blocked but airflow continues through the nose, as in /m/ and /n/, and with fricatives, where partial occlusion impedes but does not block airflow in the vocal tract.Contents1 Terminology 2 Common stops 3 Articulation 4 Classification4.1 Voice 4.2 Aspiration 4.3 Length 4.4 Nasalization 4.5 Airstream mechanism 4.6 Tenseness5 Transcription5.1 English 5.2 Variations6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTerminology[edit] The terms stop, occlusive, and plosive are often used interchangeably. Linguists who distinguish them may not agree on the distinction being made. The terms refer to different features of the consonant. "Stop" refers to the airflow that is stopped
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