Dairy products or milk products are a type of food
produced from or containing the milk
s, most commonly cattle
, water buffalo
, and camel
s. Dairy products include food
items such as yogurt
. A facility that produces dairy products is known as a dairy
, or dairy factory. Dairy products are consumed worldwide, with the exception of most of East and Southeast Asia and parts of central Africa.
Types of dairy product
is produced after optional homogenization
, in several grades after standardization of the fat level, and possible addition of the bacteria ''Streptococcus lactis
'' and ''Leuconostoc citrovorum
''. Milk can be broken down into several different categories based on type of product produced, including cream, butter, cheese, infant formula, and yogurt.
Milk varies in fat content. Skim milk
is milk with zero fat, while whole milk
products contain fat.
, milk fermented by thermophilic bacteria
, mainly ''Streptococcus
salivarius'' ssp. ''thermophilus'' and ''Lactobacillus delbrueckii'' ssp. ''bulgaricus''
sometimes with additional bacteria, such as ''Lactobacillus
, mostly milk fat, produced by churning cream
'' also called, clarified butter, by gentle heating of butter and removal of the solid matter
'', a fermented, clarified butter used in Moroccan cooking
milkfat (clarified butter
, produced by coagulating milk, separating from whey and letting it ripen, generally with bacteria
and sometimes also with certain mold
, thickened with eggs
* Imitation custard
, thickened with starch
, slowly frozen cream, milk, flavors and emulsifying additives (dairy ice cream)
, slowly frozen milk and water, lesser fat than ice cream
, low-fat version of ice cream
, yogurt with emulsifiers
Intolerance and health research
Dairy products may upset the digestive system
in individuals with lactose intolerance
or a milk allergy
People who experience lactose intolerance usually avoid milk and other lactose-containing dairy products, which may cause mild side effect
s, such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea.
Consumption of dairy products does not cause mucus production, and does not worsen common cold or asthma symptoms. A 2019 review indicated there is no convincing evidence on whether an association between dairy consumption and risk of cancers exists.]
Consumption patterns worldwide
Rates of dairy consumption vary widely worldwide. High-consumption countries consume more than 150 kg per capita per year. These countries are: Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Costa Rica, most European countries, Israel, Kyrgyzstan, North America and Pakistan. Medium-consumption countries consume 30 to 150 kg per capita per year. These countries are: India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Mongolia, New Zealand, North and Southern Africa, most of the Middle East, and most of Latin America and the Caribbean. Low-consumption countries consume under 30 kg per capita per year. These countries are: Senegal, most of Central Africa, and most of East and Southeast Asia.
[Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Dairy production and products: Milk and milk products]
Avoidance on principle
Some groups avoid dairy products for non-health-related reasons. Some religions restrict or do not allow the consumption of dairy products. For example, some scholars of Jainism advocate not consuming any dairy products because dairy is perceived to involve violence against cows.
Orthodox Judaism requires that meat and dairy products not be served at the same meal, served or cooked in the same utensils, or stored together, as prescribed in .
Veganism is the avoidance of all animal products, including dairy products, most often due to the ethics regarding how dairy products are produced. The ethical reasons for avoiding meat and dairy products include how dairy is produced, how the animals are handled, and the environmental effect of dairy production. According to a report of the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization in 2010 the dairy sector accounted for 4 percent of global man-made greenhouse gas emissions.
* Dairy industry in the United States
* Dairy industry in the United Kingdom
* Fermented milk products
* List of dairy products
* List of dairy product companies in the United States
* List of foods
* Milk substitute
* Plant milk
* Fuquay, John W. ed. ''Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences'' (2nd Edition, 4 vol 2011), comprehensive coverage
*Rankin, H. F. (1922) ''Imbucase: the Story of the B. C. I. C. of the Ministry of Food''. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Press (B.C.I.C.=Butter and Cheese Imports Committee)