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Dís
In Norse mythology, a dís ("lady", plural dísir) is a ghost, spirit or deity associated with fate who can be either benevolent or antagonistic towards mortals. Dísir may act as protective spirits of Norse clans. Their original function was possibly that of fertility goddesses who were the object of both private and official worship called dísablót,[1] and their veneration may derive from the worship of the spirits of the dead.[2] The dísir, like the valkyries, norns, and vættir, are almost always referred to collectively.[1][3] The North Germanic dísir and West Germanic Idisi are believed by some scholars to be related due to linguistic and mythological similarities,[4] but the direct evidence of Anglo-Saxon and Continental German mythology is limited
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Jacob Grimm
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863) also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German philologist, jurist, and mythologist. He is known as the discoverer of Grimm's law (linguistics), the co-author with his brother Wilhelm of the monumental Deutsches Wörterbuch, the author of Deutsche Mythologie and, more popularly, as the elder of the Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
and the editor of Grimm's Fairy Tales.[a]Contents1 Life and books1.1 Meeting von Savigny 1.2 Librarianship 1.3 Later work2 Linguistic work2.1 History
History
of the German Language 2.2 German Grammar 2.3 Grimm's law 2.4 German Dictionary3 Literary work 4 Legal scholarship 5 Politics 6 Works 7 Notes 8 Citations 9 References 10 External linksLife and books[edit] Jacob Grimm
Jacob Grimm
was born in Hanau, in Hesse-Kassel
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Norse Clans
The Scandinavian clan or ætt/ätt (pronounced [ˈæːtː] in Old Norse) was a social group based on common descent. History[edit] In the absence of a police force, the clan was the primary force of security in Norse society, as the clansmen were obliged by honour to avenge one another. The Norse clan was not tied to a certain territory in the same way as a Scottish clan, where the chief owned the territory. The land of the Scandinavian clan was owned by the individuals who had close neighbours from other clans. The name of the clan was derived from that of its ancestor, often with the addition of an -ung or -ing ending. The original meaning of ætt/ätt seems to have simply been "those who are related".[1] A person could technically belong to several clans, but usually the identification of an individual came with ancestry of most prestige
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Pluto (mythology)
Pluto
Pluto
(Greek: Πλούτων, Ploutōn) was the ruler of the underworld in classical mythology. The earlier name for the god was Hades, which became more common as the name of the underworld itself. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pluto
Pluto
represents a more positive concept of the god who presides over the afterlife. Ploutōn was frequently conflated with Ploutos (Πλοῦτος, Plutus), a god of wealth, because mineral wealth was found underground, and because as a chthonic god Pluto
Pluto
ruled the deep earth that contained the seeds necessary for a bountiful harvest.[1] The name Ploutōn came into widespread usage with the Eleusinian Mysteries, in which Pluto
Pluto
was venerated as a stern ruler but the loving husband of Persephone. The couple received souls in the afterlife, and are invoked together in religious inscriptions
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Proto-Norse
Proto-Norse (also called Proto-Scandinavian, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Old Nordic, Old Scandinavian, Proto-North Germanic, North Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
or Common Scandinavian) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
in the first centuries CE. It is the earliest stage of a characteristically North Germanic language, and the language attested in the oldest Scandinavian Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
inscriptions, spoken from around the 2nd to the 8th centuries CE (corresponding to the late Roman Iron Age
Roman Iron Age
and the Germanic Iron Age)
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Indo-European Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Rudolf Simek
Rudolf Simek (born 21 February 1954 in Eisenstadt, Burgenland) is an Austrian Germanist and philologist. Simek studied German literature, philosophy and Catholic theology
Catholic theology
in the University of Vienna, before becoming a librarian and a docent at the institution. He taught among others in the universities of Edinburgh, Tromsø and Sydney. Since 1995 he has been a Professor
Professor
of German studies at the University of Bonn. Rudolf Simek is the editor-in-chief of Studia Medievalia Septentrionalia. On 8 October 2013 Rudolf Simek received an Honorary degree at the University of Rzeszów. Works[edit] Rudolf Simek has translated into German 5 volumes of Norse sagas. He has also written numerous articles for journals and a number of books on the history of Germanic peoples, the Viking Age
Viking Age
and Germanic mythology
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West Germanic Languages
The West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages). The four most prevalent West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
are Afrikaans, English, German, and Dutch. The family also includes other High and Low German
Low German
languages including Yiddish, in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish
Luxembourgish
and Ingvaeonic languages
Ingvaeonic languages
next to English, such as the Frisian languages
Frisian languages
and Scots
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North Germanic Languages
Insular Scandinavian languages:   Faroese   Icelandic   Norn (†)    Greenlandic Norse
Greenlandic Norse
(†)Extinct Norn was spoken in Orkney, Shetland
Shetland
and Caithness
Caithness
in what is now Scotland
Scotland
until the 19th century. Extinct Greenlandic Norse
Greenlandic Norse
was spoken in the Norse settlements of Greenland
Greenland
until their demise in the late 15th century.The North Germanic languages
Germanic languages
make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
and the extinct East Germanic languages
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Guðrúnarkviða
Guðrúnarkviða I, II and III are three different heroic poems in the Poetic Edda
Poetic Edda
with the same protagonist, Gudrun. In Guðrúnarkviða I, Gudrun
Gudrun
finds her dead husband Sigurd. She cries and laments her husband with beautiful imagery. In Guðrúnarkviða II, she recapitulates her life in a monologue. In Guðrúnarkviða III, one of Attila's (Atli) bondmaids accuses her of infidelity with king Theodoric (Þjóðrekr) of the Goths
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Atlamál
Atlamál
Atlamál
in grœnlenzku (The Greenlandic Lay of Atli) is one of the heroic poems of the Poetic Edda. It relates the same basic story as Atlakviða
Atlakviða
at greater length and in a different style. The poem is believed to have been composed in Greenland, most likely in the 12th century
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Víga-Glúms Saga
Víga-Glúms saga ( listen (help·info)) is one of the Sagas of Icelanders. It takes place mostly in and around Eyjafjörður
Eyjafjörður
in North Iceland, and recounts the life and fall of Glúmr Eyjólfsson, a powerful man whose nickname, Víga, refers to his propensity for killing people. It is believed to have been written in the first half of the 13th century and one passage may allude to a political scandal of that time.Contents1 Plot 2 Manuscripts and dating 3 Themes and reception 4 Notes 5 References 6 Editions 7 Translations 8 External linksPlot[edit] Glúm's grandfather, Ingjald, was a son of Helgi inn magri (is) (the Lean), the settler of Eyjafjörður, and farmed at Þverá (later the site of Munkaþverá monastery). Glúmr is the youngest son of his son Eyjólfr, and initially unpromising
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Fertility Goddess
A fertility deity is a god or goddess associated with sex, fertility, pregnancy, and childbirth. In some cases these deities are directly associated with these experiences; in others they are more abstract symbols. Fertility
Fertility
rites may accompany their worship
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Sigewif
For a Swarm of Bees
For a Swarm of Bees
is an Anglo-Saxon metrical charm that was intended for use in keeping honey bees from swarming. The text was discovered by John Mitchell Kemble in the 19th century.[1] The charm is named for its opening words, "wiþ ymbe", meaning "against (or towards) a swarm of bees".[2] In the most often studied portion, towards the end of the text where the charm itself is located, the bees are referred to as sigewif, "victory-women"
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Beowulf
Beowulf
Beowulf
(/ˈbeɪoʊwʊlf/ Old English: [ˈbeːo̯ˌwulf]) is an Old English
Old English
epic poem consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines. It may be the oldest surviving long poem in Old English
Old English
and is commonly cited as one of the most important works of Old English
Old English
literature. A date of composition is a matter of contention among scholars; the only certain dating pertains to the manuscript, which was produced between 975 and 1025.[2] The author was an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet, referred to by scholars as the " Beowulf
Beowulf
poet".[3] The poem is set in Scandinavia. Beowulf, a hero of the Geats, comes to the aid of Hrothgar, the king of the Danes, whose mead hall in Heorot has been under attack by a monster known as Grendel
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Heimskringla
Heimskringla
Heimskringla
(Icelandic pronunciation: ​[ˈheimsˌkʰriŋla]) is the best known of the Old Norse
Old Norse
kings' sagas. It was written in Old Norse in Iceland
Iceland
by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1178/79–1241) ca. 1230. The name Heimskringla
Heimskringla
was first used in the 17th century, derived from the first two words of one of the manuscripts (kringla heimsins, "the circle of the world"). Heimskringla
Heimskringla
is a collection of sagas about the Norwegian kings, beginning with the saga of the legendary Swedish dynasty of the Ynglings, followed by accounts of historical Norwegian rulers from Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
of the 9th century up to the death of the pretender Eystein Meyla
Eystein Meyla
in 1177
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