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Cytotoxic T Cell
A cytotoxic T cell
T cell
(also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways. Most cytotoxic T cells
T cells
express T-cell receptors (TCRs) that can recognize a specific antigen. An antigen is a molecule capable of stimulating an immune response, and is often produced by cancer cells or viruses. Antigens inside a cell are bound to class I MHC molecules, and brought to the surface of the cell by the class I MHC molecule, where they can be recognized by the T cell
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Lamin A
1IFR, 1IVT, 1X8Y, 2XV5, 2YPT, 3GEF, 3V4Q, 3V4W, 3V5BIdentifiersAliases LMNA, CDCD1, CDDC, CMD1A, CMT2B1, EMD2, FPL, FPLD, FPLD2, HGPS, IDC, LDP1, LFP, LGMD1B, LMN1, LMNC, LMNL1, PRO1, lamin A/C, MADAExternal IDs OMIM: 150330 MGI: 96794 HomoloGene: 41321 GeneCards: LMNA Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
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CD80
1DR9, 1I8LIdentifiersAliases CD80, B7, B7-1, B7.1, BB1, CD28LG, CD28LG1, LAB7, CD80
CD80
moleculeExternal IDs OMIM: 112203 MGI: 101775 HomoloGene: 3804 GeneCards: CD80Gene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome

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Autoimmunity
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues
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Erythrocytes
Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.[1] RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs, or gills of fish, and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body's capillaries. The cytoplasm of erythrocytes is rich in hemoglobin, an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the red color of the cells. The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, and this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell function such as deformability and stability while traversing the circulatory system and specifically the capillary network. In humans, mature red blood cells are flexible and oval biconcave disks
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Host (biology)
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter. Examples include animals playing host to parasitic worms (e.g. nematodes), cells harbouring pathogenic (disease-causing) viruses, a bean plant hosting mutualistic (helpful) nitrogen-fixing bacteria. More specifically in botany, a host plant supplies food resources to micropredators, which have an evolutionarily stable relationship with their hosts similar to ectoparasitism
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Intracellular
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".[1] It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). The cell membrane (and, in many organisms, the cell wall) is the barrier between the two, and chemical composition of intra- and extracellular milieu ( Milieu intérieur) can be radically different. In most organisms, for example, a Na+/K+ ATPase
ATPase
maintains a high potassium level inside cells while keeping sodium low, leading to chemical excitability.[2][3] See also[edit]Cytosol Microparasite Intracellular parasiteReferences[edit]^ "Definition of Intracellular".  ^ Matsudaira, Paul T.; Lodish, Harvey F.; Arnold Berk; Kaiser, Chris; Monty Krieger; Matthew P Scott; Anthony Bretscher; Hidde Ploegh (2008). Molecular cell biology. San Francisco: W.H
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Pathogen
In biology, a pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a germ in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.[1][2] Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, protozoa, prion, a fungus, or other micro-organism.[3][4] The scientific study of pathogens is called Pathology. There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen
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Antigen Processing
Antigen
Antigen
processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways. This process involves two distinct pathways for processing of antigens from an organism's own (self) proteins or intracellular pathogens (e.g. viruses), or from phagocytosed pathogens (e.g. bacteria); subsequent presentation of these antigens on class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is dependent on which pathway is used. Both MHC class I and II are required to bind antigen before they are stably expressed on a cell surface. MHC I antigen presentation typically (considering cross-presentation) involves the endogenous pathway of antigen processing, and MHC II antigen presentation involves the exogenous pathway of antigen processing
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CD28
1YJD, 3WA4, 5AULIdentifiersAliases CD28, Tp44, CD28
CD28
moleculeExternal IDs MGI: 88327 HomoloGene: 4473 GeneCards: CD28Gene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
2 (human)[1]Band 2q33.2 Start 203,706,475 bp[1]End 203,73
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CD86
1I85, 1NCNIdentifiersAliases CD86, B7-2, B7.2, B70, CD28LG2, LAB72, CD86
CD86
moleculeExternal IDs OMIM: 601020 MGI: 101773 HomoloGene: 10443 GeneCards: CD86 Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr.
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Major Histocompatibility Complex
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface proteins essential for the acquired immune system to recognize foreign molecules in vertebrates, which in turn determines histocompatibility. The main function of MHC molecules is to bind to antigens derived from pathogens and display them on the cell surface for recognition by the appropriate T-cells.[1] MHC molecules mediate interactions of leukocytes, also called white blood cells (WBCs), which are immune cells, with other leukocytes or with body cells. The MHC determines compatibility of donors for organ transplant, as well as one's susceptibility to an autoimmune disease via crossreacting immunization. The human MHC is also called the HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex (often just the HLA). The MHC in mice is called the H-2 complex or H-2. In a cell, protein molecules of the host's own phenotype or of other biologic entities are continually synthesized and degraded
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Co-stimulation
During the activation of lymphocytes, co-stimulation is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response. Co-stimulation is required in addition to the antigen-specific signal from their antigen receptors.[1]Contents1 T Cell Co-stimulation 2 B Cell Co-stimulation 3 Applications 4 ReferencesT Cell Co-stimulation[edit] T cells require two signals to become fully activated. A first signal, which is antigen-specific, is provided through the T cell receptor (TCR) which interacts with peptide-MHC molecules on the membrane of antigen presenting cells (APC). A second signal, the co-stimulatory signal, is antigen nonspecific and is provided by the interaction between co-stimulatory molecules expressed on the membrane of APC and the T cell. One of the best characterized co-stimulatory molecules expressed by T cells is CD28, which interacts with CD80
CD80
(B7.1) and CD86
CD86
(B7.2) on the membrane of APC
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Dendritic Cells
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system. They act as messengers between the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Dendritic cells are present in those tissues that are in contact with the external environment, such as the skin (where there is a specialized dendritic cell type called the Langerhans cell) and the inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines. They can also be found in an immature state in the blood. Once activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive immune response. At certain development stages they grow branched projections, the dendrites that give the cell its name (δένδρον or déndron being Greek for "tree")
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Interleukin-2
1IRL, 1M47, 1M48, 1M49, 1M4A, 1M4B, 1M4C, 1NBP, 1PW6, 1PY2, 1QVN, 1Z92, 2B5I, 2ERJ, 3QAZ, 3QB1, 3INK, 4NEJ, 4NEMIdentifiersAliases IL2, IL-2, TCGF, lymphokine, interleukin 2External IDs OMIM: 147680 MGI: 96548 HomoloGene: 488 GeneCards: IL2Gene location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
4 (human)[1]Band 4q27 Start 122,451,470 bp[1]End 122,456,725 bp[1]Gene location (Mouse)Chr.
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Differentiation (cellular)
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.[2][3] Most commonly the cell changes to a more specialized type. Differentiation occurs numerous times during the development of a multicellular organism as it changes from a simple zygote to a complex system of tissues and cell types. Differentiation continues in adulthood as adult stem cells divide and create fully differentiated daughter cells during tissue repair and during normal cell turnover. Some differentiation occurs in response to antigen exposure. Differentiation dramatically changes a cell's size, shape, membrane potential, metabolic activity, and responsiveness to signals. These changes are largely due to highly controlled modifications in gene expression and are the study of epigenetics. With a few exceptions, cellular differentiation almost never involves a change in the DNA sequence itself
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