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Cyrrhus
CYRRHUS (/ˈsɪrəs/ ; Greek : Κύρρος Kyrrhos) was a city in ancient Syria
Syria
founded by Seleucus Nicator , one of Alexander the Great 's generals. Other names for the city include HAGIOUPOLIS, NEBI HURI (Arabic : نبي حوري), KHOROS (حوروس Ḳūrus). A false etymology of the sixth century connects it to Cyrus , king of Persia due to the resemblance of the names. The former Roman/Byzantine (arch)bishopric is now a double Catholic titular see . CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 History * 3 Archaeology * 4 Ecclesiastical history * 4.1 Residential (Arch)Bishops of Cyrrhus
Cyrrhus
* 4.2 Titular sees * 4.2.1 Latin titular see * 4.2.2 Maronite titular see * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources and external links * 9 Further reading LOCATIONIts ruins are located in northern Syria
Syria
, near the Turkish border
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Nur Ad-Din Zangi
NūR AD-DīN ABū AL-QāSIM MAḥMūD IBN ʿIMāD AD-DīN ZENGī (February 1118 – 15 May 1174), often shortened to his laqab NUR AD-DIN (Turkish : Nureddin) (Arabic : نور الدين‎‎, "Light of the Faith"), was a member of the Turkish Zengid dynasty
Zengid dynasty
which ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
. He reigned from 1146 to 1174. CONTENTS * 1 War against Crusaders * 2 Unification of sultanate * 2.1 The problem of Egypt * 3 Death and succession * 4 Legacy * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 Bibliography WAR AGAINST CRUSADERSNur ad-Din was the second son of Imad ad-Din Zengi , the Turkish atabeg of Aleppo
Aleppo
and Mosul
Mosul
, who was a devoted enemy of the crusader presence in Syria
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Crusades
AFTER 1291 * Poor 1309 * Shepherds\' 1320 * Smyrniote 1343–1351 * Alexandrian 1365 * Savoyard 1366 * Barbary 1390 * Nicopolis 1396 * Varna
Varna
1443 * Portuguese 1481 NORTHERN CRUSADES (1147–1410) * Wendish 1147 * Swedish * 1150 * 1249 * 1293 * Livonian 1198–1290 * Prussian 1217–1274 * Lithuanian 1283–1410 AGAINST CHRISTIANS * Bosnian 1235–1241 * Albigensian 1209–1229 * Aragonese 1284/5 * Despenser\'s 1382/3 * Hussite 1419–1434 ------------------------- * BOOK:THE CRUSADES * PORTAL:CRUSADES Map of the Eastern Mediterranean in 1135. The Frankish Crusader states are indicated with a red cross ☩: Kingdom of Jerusalem , County of Tripoli
County of Tripoli
, Principality of Antioch
Principality of Antioch
, County of Edessa
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Square
In geometry , a SQUARE is a regular quadrilateral , which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90-degree angles, or right angles ). It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length. A square with vertices ABCD would be denoted {displaystyle square } ABCD
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Hippodamus Of Miletus
HIPPODAMUS OF MILETUS (/hɪˈpɒdəməs/ ; Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος, Hippodamos ho Milesios; 498 – 408 BC), was an ancient Greek architect , urban planner , physician , mathematician , meteorologist and philosopher , who is considered to be "the Father of European Urban Planning ", the namesake of the "Hippodamian Plan" (grid plan ) of city layout. Hippodamus was born in Miletus and lived during the 5th century BC, on the spring of the Ancient Greece classical epoch. His father was Euryphon. According to Aristotle, Hippodamus was the first author who wrote upon the theory of government, without any knowledge of practical affairs. His plans of Greek cities were characterised by order and regularity in contrast to the intricacy and confusion common to cities of that period, even Athens
Athens

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Grid Plan
The GRID PLAN, GRID STREET PLAN, or GRIDIRON PLAN is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. The infrastructure cost for regular grid patterns is generally higher than for patterns with discontinuous streets. Costs for streets depend largely on four variables: street width, street length, block width and pavement width. Two inherent characteristics of the grid plan, frequent intersections and orthogonal geometry, assist pedestrian movement. The geometry helps with orientation and wayfinding and its frequent intersections with the choice and directness of route to desired destinations. In ancient Rome , the grid plan method of land measurement was called centuriation . The grid plan dates from antiquity and originated in multiple cultures; some of the earliest planned cities were built using grid plans
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Justinian
JUSTINIAN I (/dʒʌˈstɪniən/ ; Latin
Latin
: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek : Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós) (c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as JUSTINIAN THE GREAT and also SAINT JUSTINIAN THE GREAT in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
, was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire , and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire". Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman " in modern historiography
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a LIST OF THE BYZANTINE EMPERORS from the foundation of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman (or Byzantine ) Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (symbasileis) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great , the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium
Byzantium
as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later Byzantine emperors as the model ruler
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Pompey
GNAEUS POMPEIUS MAGNUS (Classical Latin: ; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as POMPEY /ˈpɒmpiː/ or POMPEY THE GREAT, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic
Roman Republic
. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility . Pompey's immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office . His success as a military commander in Sulla\'s Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the nickname Magnus , "the Great", upon him. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs
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Euphrates River
The EUPHRATES (/juːˈfreɪtiːz/ ( listen ); Sumerian : 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Buranuna, Akkadian
Akkadian
: 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu, Arabic
Arabic
: الفرات‎ al-Furāt, Syriac : ̇ܦܪܬ‎ Pǝrāt, Armenian : Եփրատ: Yeprat, Hebrew : פרת‎ Perat, Turkish : Fırat, Kurdish : Firat‎) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia
Western Asia
. Together with the Tigris
Tigris
, it is one of the two defining rivers of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(the "Land between the Rivers")
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Legio X Fretensis
LEGIO X FRETENSIS ("Tenth legion of the Strait") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army . It was founded by the young Gaius Octavius (later to become Augustus Caesar
Augustus Caesar
) in 41/40 BC to fight during the period of civil war that started the dissolution of the Roman Republic . X Fretensis is then recorded to have existed at least until the 410s. X Fretensis symbols were the bull — the holy animal of the goddess Venus (mythical ancestor of the gens Julia ) — a ship (probably a reference to the Battles of Naulochus and/or Actium ), the god Neptune , and a boar. The symbol of Taurus may also mean that it was organized between 20 April and 20 May
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Sassanid Persian Empire
TEMPORARILY CONTROLLED DURING THE BYZANTINE–SASANIAN WAR OF 602–628 : Abkhazia * Russia * ( Dagestan and * Chechnya ) * Turkey * Lebanon * Israel * Palestinian National Authority (West Bank and Gaza strip ) * Jordan * Egypt PART OF A SERIES ON THE HISTORY OF IRAN Mythological history * Pishdadian dynasty * Kayanian dynasty Ancient period BC Prehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000 Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000 Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200 Elam 2700–539 Akkadian Empire 2400–2150 Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Colonnade
In classical architecture , a COLONNADE denotes a long sequence of columns joined by their entablature , often free-standing, or part of a building. Paired or multiple pairs of columns are normally employed in a colonnade which can be straight or curved. The space enclosed may be covered or open. In St. Peter\'s Square in Rome, Bernini\'s great colonnade encloses a vast open elliptical space. When in front of a building, screening the door (Latin porta), it is called a portico , when enclosing an open court, a peristyle . A portico may be more than one rank of columns deep, as at the Pantheon in Rome or the stoae of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
. Colonnades have been built since ancient times and interpretations of the classical model have continued through to modern times, and Neoclassical styles remained popular for centuries. At the British Museum , for example, porticos are continued along the front as a colonnade
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Hellenistic
The HELLENISTIC PERIOD covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as signified by the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
the following year. At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe
Europe
, Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts , exploration , literature , theatre , architecture , music , mathematics , philosophy , and science . It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration , compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era
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Bishopric
The word DIOCESE (/ˈdaɪ.ə.sɪs/ ) is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration". When now used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. In the Western Church, the district is under the supervision of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into parishes under the care of priests; but in the Eastern Church, the word denotes the area under the jurisdiction of a patriarch and the bishops under his jurisdiction administer parishes. This structure of church governance is known as episcopal polity . The word DIOCESAN means relating or pertaining to a diocese. It can also be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese
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Suffragan
A SUFFRAGAN BISHOP is a bishop subordinate to a metropolitan bishop or diocesan bishop . They may be assigned to an area which does not have a cathedral of its own. CONTENTS* 1 Anglican
Anglican
Communion * 1.1 England * 1.1.1 History * 1.1.2 Today * 1.1.2.1 Area bishops * 1.1.2.2 Suffragan bishops * 1.2 Wales
Wales
* 1.3 Ireland * 1.4 United States * 1.5 Acting bishops * 2 Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
* 3 See also * 4 References ANGLICAN COMMUNIONIn the Anglican
Anglican
churches, the term applies to a bishop who is an assistant to a diocesan bishop . For example, the Bishop
Bishop
of Jarrow is a suffragan to the diocesan Bishop
Bishop
of Durham
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