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Cyrrhus
Cyrrhus
Cyrrhus
(/ˈsɪrəs/; Greek: Κύρρος Kyrrhos) was a city in ancient Syria
Syria
founded by Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals. Other names for the city include Hagioupolis, Nebi Huri (Arabic: نبي حوري), Khoros
Khoros
(حوروس Ḳūrus). A false etymology of the sixth century connects it to Cyrus, king of Persia due to the resemblance of the names. The former Roman/Byzantine (arch)bishopric is now a double Catholic titular see.Contents1 Location 2 History 3 Archaeology 4 Ecclesiastical history4.1 Residential (Arch)Bishops of Cyrrhus 4.2 Titular sees4.2.1 Latin titular see 4.2.2 Maronite titular see5 Gallery 6 References 7 Sources and external links 8 Further readingLocation[edit] Its ruins are located in northern Syria, near the Turkish border. It lies about 70 km northwest of Aleppo
Aleppo
and 24 km west of Killis, in Turkey
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Metropolitan See
A metropolis or metropolitan archdiocese is a see or city whose bishop is the metropolitan of a province. Metropolises, historically, have been important cities in their provinces. In the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Churches, a metropolis (also called metropolia or metropolitanate) is a type of diocese, along with eparchies, exarchates, and archdioceses. In the Churches of Greek Orthodoxy (Church of Greece, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese
Archdiocese
of America, etc.), every diocese is a metropolis, headed by a metropolitan: auxiliary bishops are the only non-metropolitan bishops
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Grid Plan
The grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. The infrastructure cost for regular grid patterns is generally higher than for patterns with discontinuous streets. Costs for streets depend largely on four variables: street width, street length, block width and pavement width. Two inherent characteristics of the grid plan, frequent intersections and orthogonal geometry, assist pedestrian movement. The geometry helps with orientation and wayfinding and its frequent intersections with the choice and directness of route to desired destinations. In ancient Rome, the grid plan method of land measurement was called centuriation
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Euphrates River
The Euphrates
Euphrates
(/juːˈfreɪtiːz/ ( listen); Sumerian: 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Buranuna, Akkadian: 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu, Arabic: الفرات‎ al-Furāt, Syriac: ̇ܦܪܬ‎ Pǝrāt, Armenian: Եփրատ: Yeprat, Hebrew: פרת‎ Perat, Turkish: Fırat, Kurdish: Firat‎) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia
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Legio X Fretensis
Legio X Fretensis
Legio X Fretensis
("Tenth legion of the Strait") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was founded by the young Gaius Octavius (later to become Augustus
Augustus
Caesar) in 41/40 BC to fight during the period of civil war that started the dissolution of the Roman Republic. X Fretensis is then recorded to have existed at least until the 410s. X Fretensis symbols were the bull — the holy animal of the goddess Venus (mythical ancestor of the gens Julia) — a ship (probably a reference to the Battles of Naulochus and/or Actium), the god Neptune, and a boar
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Sassanid Persian Empire
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia ( Dagestan and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel  Palestinian National Authority (West Bank and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539Akkadian Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Byzantine Emperor
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
(or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1453 AD. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (symbasileis) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. Traditionally, the line of Byzantine emperors is held to begin with the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, who rebuilt the city of Byzantium
Byzantium
as an imperial capital, Constantinople, and who was regarded by the later emperors as the model ruler
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Justinian
Justinian I
Justinian I
(/dʒʌˈstɪniən/; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint
Saint
Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[3][4] was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire
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Crusades
After 1291Smyrniote 1343–1351 Alexandrian 1365 Savoyard 1366 Barbary 1390 Nicopolis 1396 Varna
Varna
1443 Portuguese 1481 Northern Crusades
Northern Crusades
(1147–1410)Wendish 1147 Swedish1150 1249 1293Livonian 1198–1290 Prussian 1217–1274 Lithuan
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Nur Ad-Din Zangi
Nūr ad-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿImād ad-Dīn Zengī (February 1118 – 15 May 1174), often shortened to his laqab Nur ad-Din (Turkish: Nureddin) (Arabic: نور الدين‎, "Light of the Faith"), was a member of the Turkish Zengid dynasty
Zengid dynasty
which ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire. He reigned from 1146 to 1174.Contents1 War against Crusaders 2 Unification of sultanate2.1 The problem of Egypt3 Death and succession 4 Legacy 5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources 8 BibliographyWar against Crusaders[edit] Nur ad-Din was the second son of Imad ad-Din Zengi, the Turkish atabeg of Aleppo
Aleppo
and Mosul, who was a devoted enemy of the crusader presence in Syria
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Square
In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90-degree angles, or (100-gradian angles or right angles).[1] It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length
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Hippodamus Of Miletus
Hippodamus of Miletus
Miletus
(/hɪˈpɒdəməs/; Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος, Hippodamos ho Milesios; 498 – 408 BC), was an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician, mathematician, meteorologist and philosopher, who is considered to be "the father of European urban planning",[1] the namesake of the "Hippodamian Plan" (grid plan) of city layout. Hippodamus was born in Miletus
Miletus
and lived during the 5th century BC, on the spring of the Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
classical epoch. His father was Euryphon. According to Aristotle, Hippodamus was the first author who wrote upon the theory of government, without any knowledge of practical affairs.[2] His plans of Greek cities were characterised by order and regularity in contrast to the intricacy and confusion common to cities of that period, even Athens
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Colonnade
In classical architecture, a colonnade is a long sequence of columns joined by their entablature, often free-standing, or part of a building.[1] Paired or multiple pairs of columns are normally employed in a colonnade which can be straight or curved. The space enclosed may be covered or open. In St. Peter's Square
St. Peter's Square
in Rome, Bernini's great colonnade encloses a vast open elliptical space. When in front of a building, screening the door (Latin porta), it is called a portico, when enclosing an open court, a peristyle. A portico may be more than one rank of columns deep, as at the Pantheon in Rome or the stoae of Ancient Greece. Colonnades have been built since ancient times and interpretations of the classical model have continued through to modern times, and Neoclassical styles remained popular for centuries.[2] At the British Museum, for example, porticos are continued along the front as a colonnade
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Hellenistic
The Hellenistic
Hellenistic
period covers the period of Mediterranean
Mediterranean
history between the death of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as signified by the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC[1] and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
the following year.[2] The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word Hellas (Ἑλλάς, Ellás) is the original word for Greece, from which the word "Hellenistic" was derived.[3] At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science
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Islam
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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