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Cyril Ramaphosa
MATAMELA CYRIL RAMAPHOSA (born 17 November 1952) is a South African politician, businessman, activist, and trade union leader who has served as the Deputy President under President Jacob Zuma since 2014. He was elected as Deputy President of the African National Congress (ANC) at the ANC
ANC
National Conference in Mangaung in December 2012. He is also the Chairman of the National Planning Commission , which is responsible for strategic planning for the country Respected as a skillful negotiator and strategist, Ramaphosa built up the biggest and most powerful trade union in South Africa—the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM)—and played a crucial role, with Roelf Meyer of the National Party , during the negotiations to bring about a peaceful end to apartheid and steer the country towards its first democratic elections in April 1994
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FRELIMO
The MOZAMBIQUE LIBERATION FRONT (FRELIMO) (Portuguese pronunciation: ), from the Portuguese FRENTE DE LIBERTAçãO DE MOçAMBIQUE is the dominant political party in Mozambique
Mozambique
. Founded in 1962, FRELIMO began as a nationalist movement fighting for the independence of the Portuguese Overseas Province of Mozambique
Mozambique
. Independence was achieved in June 1975 after the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon
Lisbon
the previous year. At the party's 3rd Congress in February 1977, it became an officially Marxist–Leninist political party. It identified as the FRELIMO
FRELIMO
PARTY (PARTIDO FRELIMO). The FRELIMO
FRELIMO
Party has ruled Mozambique
Mozambique
since then, first as a one-party state . It struggled through a long civil war (1976-1992) against an anti-Communist faction known as Mozambican National Resistance or RENAMO
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John Vorster Square
The JOHANNESBURG CENTRAL POLICE STATION is a South African Police Service police station based in Johannesburg, South African. Until 1997, it was called JOHN VORSTER SQUARE. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Under apartheid * 3 External links * 4 References HISTORYJohn Vorster Square was officially opened on the 23 August 1968 by John Vorster the then current prime minister of the Republic of South Africa . It was a 10 storey, blue coloured cement building. Floors nine and ten were occupied by the police Security Branch while the detainees cells were on the lower floors of the building. During the apartheid era, the police station in downtown Johannesburg was a notorious site of interrogation, torture and abuse by the South African Security Police of apartheid resistance fighters. During September 1997, John Vorster Square was renamed Johannesburg Central Police Station and with that the removal of the bust of John Vorster
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Lawyer
A LAWYER is a person who practices law , as an advocate , barrister , attorney , counselor , solicitor , not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services. The role of the lawyer varies greatly across legal jurisdictions, and so it can be treated here in only the most general terms
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National Council Of Trade Unions
The NATIONAL COUNCIL OF TRADE UNIONS (NACTU) is a national trade union center in South Africa . It has a membership of 397,000 and was formed by the merger of the Council of Unions of South Africa (CUSA) in 1986 and the Azanian Confederation of Trade Unions (AZACTU). :488 The NACTU is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation . CONTENTS * 1 Affiliates * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links AFFILIATESThe NACTU has 21 affiliated unions
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Terrorism
TERRORISM, in its broadest sense, describes the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror or fear , in order to achieve a political, religious or ideological aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence against peacetime targets or in war against non-combatants . The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" have been used since the late 18th century, have gained popularity during the U.S. Presidency of Ronald Reagan (1981–89) after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings and again after the attacks on New York City
New York City
and Washington, D.C. in September 2001 and on Bali in October 2002 . Nevertheless, there is no commonly accepted definition of 'terrorism'. Having the moral charge in our vocabulary of 'something morally wrong', the term 'terrorism' is often being used, both by governments and non-state-groups, to abuse or denounce opposite groups
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Black People's Convention
The BLACK PEOPLE\'S CONVENTION (BPC) was founded at the end of 1972 as the Nationalist Liberatory Flagship of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) in South Africa. The BCM was a product of three historicultural and ideological imperatives: a) Black students were tired of the hypocrisy of white liberal college/university students of apartheid South Africa . The South African Students Organisation (SASO) originated Black Consciousness and Bantu Steve Biko was its founding President in 1969. b) Blacks were undermining reactionary tribalist/national chauvinist/sexists divide and rule by white racialist settler-colonial governments since 1910 and earlier. c) Young people globally were taking their part in the international radical/revolutionary militancy of the mid and late sixties
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Sibasa
SIBASA is a town in Limpopo Province , South Africa and the former capital city of the Venda bantustan . When Venda was declared independent in 1979, the capital was moved to Thohoyandou . Town 72 km north-north-east of Louis Trichardt . It was named after a Venda chief, Tshivhase. REFERENCES * ^ A B C D "Sub Place Sibasa". Census 2001. * ^ "Dictionary of Southern African Place Names (Public Domain)". Human Science Research Council. p. 404. This Limpopo location article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Venda
VENDA (/vɛnˈdə/ ) was a Bantustan
Bantustan
in northern South Africa
South Africa
, close to the South African border with Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
to the north, while to the south and east, it shared a long border with another black homeland, Gazankulu . It is now part of the Limpopo
Limpopo
province. Venda
Venda
was founded as a homeland by the South African government for the Venda people , speakers of the Venda language . The United Nations
United Nations
and international community refused to recognize Venda
Venda
(or any other Bantustan) as an independent state
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Law
LAW is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior . Law
Law
is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes , by the executive through decrees and regulations , or established by judges through precedent , normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts , including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution , written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics , economics , history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people
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South African Students Organisation
The SOUTH AFRICAN STUDENTS\' ORGANISATION (SASO) was a body of South African students who resisted apartheid through political action. The organisation was formed in 1968, spearheaded by Steve Biko , and played a major role in the Black Consciousness Movement . Up until SASO's formation, the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) considered multi-racialism to be the solution to racism and apartheid. The SASO differed from this viewpoint, advocating a black identity separate from any white or multi-racial identity, and succeeded in attracting large numbers of black, coloured, and Indian youths. In 1974, nine leaders from SASO were arrested and tried for conspiring to overthrow the state by unconstitutional means
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1982 In South Africa
List of years in South Africa The following lists events that happened during 1982 IN SOUTH AFRICA . CONTENTS * 1 Incumbents * 2 Events * 3 Births * 4 Deaths * 5 Railways * 5.1 Locomotives * 6 Sports * 6.1 Athletics * 6.2 Motorsport * 7 References INCUMBENTS * State President : Marais Viljoen . * Prime Minister : P.W. Botha . * Chief Justice : Frans Lourens Herman Rumpff then Pieter Jacobus Rabie .EVENTS January * 7 – A bomb damages the office of the West Rand Administration Board in Soweto . * 8 – Umkhonto we Sizwe guerrillas attack Koeberg nuclear power plant in Cape Town . * 11 – The United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid launches the International Year of Mobilisation for Sanctions against South Africa. February * 15 – Four COSAS-Members are bombed by the Security Branch under orders of Brigadier Schoon at a mine dump outside Kagiso
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Lebowa
LEBOWA was a bantustan ("homeland") located in the Transvaal in north eastern South Africa
South Africa
. Seshego initially acted as Lebowa's capital while the purpose-built Lebowakgomo
Lebowakgomo
was being constructed. Granted internal self-government on 2 October 1972 and ruled for much of its existence by Cedric Phatudi , Lebowa
Lebowa
was reincorporated into South Africa in 1994. It became part of the Limpopo
Limpopo
province. The territory was not contiguous, being divided into two major and several minor portions
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1985 In South Africa
List of years in South Africa The following lists events that happened during 1985 IN SOUTH AFRICA . CONTENTS * 1 Incumbents * 2 Events * 3 Births * 4 Deaths * 5 Railways * 5.1 Locomotives * 6 Sports * 6.1 Athletics * 6.2 Motorsport * 7 References INCUMBENTS * State President : P.W. Botha . * Chief Justice : Pieter Jacobus Rabie .EVENTS January * 31 – State President P.W. Botha offers a release proposal to imprisoned African National Congress deputy leader Nelson Mandela . * 31 – Dr Gerrit Viljoen , Minister of Cooperation and Development, announces that the forced removal of Blacks will be suspended. * Three guerrillas and a policeman are killed in a skirmish near Nongoma . February * 9 – An explosion damages the Old Defence Force offices in Marshall Street, Johannesburg. * 10 – Nelson Mandela rejects P.W
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Congress Of South African Trade Unions
The CONGRESS OF SOUTH AFRICAN TRADE UNIONS (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. It was founded in 1985 and is the largest of the country’s three main trade union federations, with 21 affiliated trade unions, altogether organizing 1.8 million workers. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Fight against Apartheid
Apartheid
* 3 Affiliated Trade Unions * 4 Expulsion of the National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa * 5 Government * 6 Labour and social movements * 7 Logo * 8 Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
* 9 Current officeholders * 10 See also * 11 Further reading * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links HISTORYOn 30 Nov 1985, 33 unions met at the University of Natal for talks on forming a federation of trade unions
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United Democratic Front (South Africa)
DEMOCRAT or DEMOCRATIC may refer to: * A proponent of democracy , or democratic government; rule of the people or rule by many.* A member of a Democratic Party: * Democratic Party (United States)
Democratic Party (United States)
( Democrat Party, D) *
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