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Cylinder Bank
Internal combustion piston engines (those with more than one cylinder) are usually arranged so that the cylinders are in lines parallel to the crankshaft . Where they are in a single line, this is referred to as an inline or straight engine . Where engines have a large number of cylinders, the cylinders are commonly arranged in two lines, placed at an angle to each other as a V engine
V engine
. Each line is referred to as a CYLINDER BANK. The angle between cylinder banks is described as the bank angle. CONTENTS * 1 Number of cylinders * 2 Advantages of multi-bank engines * 3 Unusual arrangements * 4 Radial engines * 5 References NUMBER OF CYLINDERSEngines with six cylinders are equally common as either straight or vee engines. With more cylinders than this, the vee configuration is more common. Fewer cylinders are more usually arranged as an inline engine
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Lancia V4 Engine
Italian automobile company Lancia
Lancia
were the first to manufacture cars with V4 and V6 engines in series-production. This started with a number of V4-engine families, that were produced from the 1920s through 1970s. The Lancia
Lancia
V4 pioneered the narrow-angle V engine
V engine
design, more recently seen in Volkswagen's VR5 and VR6 engines. By using very shallow V-angles — between 10° and 20° — both rows of cylinders could be housed in an engine block with a single cylinder head , like a straight engine . A determining characteristic was the use of overhead camshafts (either single or double), in which a camshaft would serve the same function for all cylinders — in both cylinder banks
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Outboard Motor
An OUTBOARD MOTOR is a propulsion system for boats , consisting of a self-contained unit that includes engine, gearbox and propeller or jet drive , designed to be affixed to the outside of the transom . They are the most common motorized method of propelling small watercraft. As well as providing propulsion, outboards provide steering control, as they are designed to pivot over their mountings and thus control the direction of thrust. The skeg also acts as a rudder when the engine is not running. Unlike inboard motors , outboard motors can be easily removed for storage or repairs. Bolinder's two-cylinder Trim outboard engine
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V4 Engine
A V4 ENGINE is a type of four-cylinder engine , a V engine with four cylinders . A V4 engine typically has three main bearings . Usually one bank of cylinders will comprise cylinders # 1&3, and the other bank # 2&4. For reasons of packaging, the Honda VFR1200 has a 1&4, and 2 but the advantages in a car have been found not to be worth the expense, especially as access for maintenance can become more difficult. AUTOMOBILE USEOne of the earliest V4 internal combustion engines was that designed by Émile Mors of Paris to power his motor-car of 1897. The 90 degree V-angle with central camshaft and spark ignition meant its layout is much like more modern engines, though in this case the inlet valves were operated by suction alone. At the time the lack of vibration from this layout was a key selling point. The V4 engine has not been widely used in cars
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Armstrong Siddeley Deerhound
The ARMSTRONG SIDDELEY DEERHOUND was a large aero engine developed by Armstrong Siddeley
Armstrong Siddeley
between 1935 and 1941. An increased capacity variant known as the BOARHOUND was never flown, and a related, much larger, design known as the WOLFHOUND existed on paper only. Development of these engines was interrupted in April 1941, when the company's factory was bombed, and on 3 October 1941 the project was cancelled by the Air Ministry
Air Ministry

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Radial Engine
The RADIAL ENGINE is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. It resembles a stylized star when viewed from the front, and is called a "star engine" (German Sternmotor, French moteur en étoile, Japanese hoshigata enjin, Italian Motore Stellare) in some languages. The radial configuration was commonly used for aircraft engines before gas turbine engines became predominant
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Napier Lion
The NAPIER LION was a 12-cylinder 'broad arrow' W12 configuration aircraft engine built by D. Napier "> The configuration is also known as a W engine
W engine
. The engine was also advanced in form, the heads using four valves per cylinder with twin overhead camshafts on each bank of cylinders and a single block being milled from aluminium instead of the common separate-cylinder steel construction used on almost all other designs. Cutaway view showing the double overhead camshaft arrangement Under Arthur Rowledge , the design of the engine, renamed Lion, was completed in 1917; hand-built prototypes ran later that year. It was fitted to an Airco DH.9
Airco DH.9
in early 1918, and many cooling problems were observed during testing. The milled block was difficult to build with the required accuracy and the design reverted to separate aluminium cylinders
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Straight-8 Engine
The STRAIGHT-EIGHT ENGINE or INLINE-EIGHT ENGINE is an eight-cylinder internal combustion engine with all eight cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase . The type has been produced in side-valve , IOE , overhead-valve , sleeve-valve , and overhead-cam configurations. A straight-eight can be timed for inherent primary and secondary balance , with no unbalanced primary or secondary forces or moments. However, crankshaft torsional vibration , present to some degree in all engines, is sufficient to require the use of a harmonic damper at the accessory end of the crankshaft. Without such damping, fatigue cracking near the rear main bearing journal may occur, leading to engine failure. Although an inline six -cylinder engine can also be timed for inherent primary and secondary balance, a straight-eight develops more power strokes per revolution and, as a result, will run more smoothly under load than an inline six
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VR6 Engine
Volkswagen
Volkswagen
's VR6 ENGINES, and the later VR5 variants, are a family of internal combustion engines , characterised by a narrow-angle (10.5° or 15°) V engine
V engine
configuration . Developed by the manufacturer in the late 1980s, evolutions of these engines are still produced by them. When containing six cylinders , a VR-engine's cylinder block consists of two cylinder banks (left: 1-3-5; right: 2-4-6) while there is only a single cylinder head covering both rows of cylinders
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Broad Arrow
A BROAD ARROW, of which a PHEON is a variant, is a stylised representation of a metal arrowhead , comprising a tang and two barbs meeting at a point. It is a symbol used traditionally in heraldry , most notably in England, and later by the British government to mark government property. In heraldry, the arrowhead generally points downwards, whereas in other contexts it more usually points upwards. CONTENTS * 1 In heraldry * 2 Use for British Government property * 3 In the American colonies * 4 In Australia * 5 In India * 6 In characterisation of internal combustion engines * 7 Notes * 8 References IN HERALDRY Pheon in the arms of the Sidney family of Penshurst : Or, a pheon azure The broad arrow as a heraldic device comprises a tang with two converging blades, or barbs. When these barbs are engrailed on their inner edges, the device may be termed a pheon
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Zvezda M503
The ZVEZDA M503 was a maritime 7 bank , 42 cylinder diesel radial engine built in the 1970s by the Soviet Union. Its primary use was in Soviet missile boats that used three of these engines. This engine may have had other applications, but due to its extreme weight (5,400 kg (11,900 lb)), it would have been limited to ground or naval applications. A German tractor pulling team designed a vehicle, named "Dragon Fire", around a methanol-fueled version of this engine; this modified engine is said to weigh 3,200 kg (7,100 lb) including the gearbox, for use in the 5.4 ton tractor pulling class, making 8,000 hp (6,000 kW) at 2,500 rpm
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V Engine
A V ENGINE, or VEE ENGINE is a common configuration for an internal combustion engine . The cylinders and pistons are aligned, in two separate planes or 'banks', so that they appear to be in a "V" when viewed along the axis of the crankshaft . The Vee configuration generally reduces the overall engine length, height and weight compared with an equivalent inline configuration. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Characteristics * 3 Inverted engines * 4 Specific configurations * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe first V-type engine, a 2-cylinder vee twin, was built in 1889 by Daimler , to a design by Wilhelm Maybach
Wilhelm Maybach
. By 1903 V8 engines were being produced for motor boat racing by the Société Antoinette to designs by Léon Levavasseur , building on experience gained with in-line four -cylinder engines
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W Engine
A W ENGINE is a type of reciprocating engine arranged with its cylinders in a configuration in which the cylinder banks resemble the letter W, in the same way those of a V engine resemble the letter V. Three different configurations have been called W engines: * Three banks of cylinders sharing a common crankshaft , a configuration also known as BROAD ARROW configuration due to its shape resembling the British government broad arrow property mark
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Straight Engine
The STRAIGHT or INLINE ENGINE is an internal-combustion engine with all cylinders aligned in one row and having no offset. Usually found in four, six and eight cylinder configurations, they have been used in automobiles , locomotives and aircraft , although the term in-line has a broader meaning when applied to aircraft engines , see Inline engine (aviation) . A straight engine is considerably easier to build than an otherwise equivalent horizontally opposed or V engine
V engine
, because both the cylinder bank and crankshaft can be milled from a single metal casting , and it requires fewer cylinder heads and camshafts . In-line engines are also smaller in overall physical dimensions than designs such as the radial , and can be mounted in any direction. Straight configurations are simpler than their V-shaped counterparts
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