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Cyclostomata
CYCLOSTOMATA is a group of agnathans that comprises the living jawless fishes : the lampreys and hagfishes . Both groups have round mouths that lack jaws but have retractable horny teeth. The name Cyclostomata
Cyclostomata
means "round mouths". Their mouths cannot close due to the lack of a jaw, so they have to constantly cycle water through the mouth. POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIPSThis taxon is often included in the paraphyletic superclass Agnatha
Agnatha
, which also includes several groups of extinct armored fishes called ostracoderms . Most fossil agnathans, such as galeaspids, thelodonts, and osteostracans, are more closely related to vertebrates with jaws (called gnathostomes ) than to cyclostomes. Cyclostomes seem to have split off before the evolution of dentine and bone, which are present in many fossil agnathans, including conodonts . Biologists disagree about whether cyclostomes are a clade
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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PubMed Central
PUBMED CENTRAL (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology , and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML
XML
structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez
Entrez
search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge
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Taxon
In biology , a TAXON (plural TAXA; back-formation from taxonomy ) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit. Although neither is required, a taxon is usually known by a particular name and given a particular ranking , especially if and when it is accepted or becomes established. It is not uncommon, however, for taxonomists to remain at odds over what belongs to a taxon and the criteria used for inclusion. If a taxon is given a formal scientific name , its use is then governed by one of the nomenclature codes specifying which scientific name is correct for a particular grouping
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Chondrostei
Acipenseriformes Polypteriformes CHONDROSTEI are primarily cartilaginous fish showing some degree of ossification . It is thought that the cartilaginous condition is derived, and that the ancestors of this group were bony fish with fully ossified skeletons. Members of this group share with the Elasmobranchii
Elasmobranchii
certain features such as the possession of spiracles , a heterocercal tail and the absence of scales. Nevertheless, the fossil record suggests they have more in common with the teleosts . The Chondrostei
Chondrostei
is probably a paraphyletic grouping; the fifty-two living species are divided among two orders, the Acipenseriformes (sturgeons and paddlefishes ), and the Polypteriformes (reedfishes and bichirs )
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André Marie Constant Duméril
ANDRé MARIE CONSTANT DUMéRIL (January 1, 1774 – August 14, 1860) was a French zoologist . He was professor of anatomy at the Muséum National d\'Histoire Naturelle from 1801 to 1812, when he became professor of herpetology and ichthyology . His son Auguste Duméril was also a zoologist. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Species
Species
named after Duméril * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE André Marie Constant Duméril
André Marie Constant Duméril
was born on January 1, 1774 in Amiens and died on August 14, 1860 in Paris. He became a very young doctor obtaining, at 19 years, the “prévot” of anatomy at the Medical school of Rouen
Rouen
. In 1800, he left for Paris
Paris
and collaborated in the drafting of the comparative anatomy lessons of Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Paraphyletic
In taxonomy , a group is PARAPHYLETIC if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a PARAPHYLY. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology ) and in linguistics . The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like reptiles (Reptilia) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids —except for mammals and birds . Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish , monkeys and lizards . If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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Mucous Membrane
A MUCOUS MEMBRANE or MUCOSA is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and surrounds internal organs. It consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue . It is mostly of endodermal origin and is continuous with the skin at various body openings such as the eyes , ears , inside the nose , inside the mouth , lip , the urethral opening and the anus , frenulum of tongue , tongue . Some mucous membranes secrete mucus , a thick protective fluid. The function of the membrane is to stop pathogens and dirt from entering the body and to prevent bodily tissues from becoming dehydrated. CONTENTS* 1 Structure and function * 1.1 Examples * 2 Nutrition * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONDevelopmentally, the majority of mucous membranes are of endodermal origin
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Monophyletic
In cladistics , a MONOPHYLETIC group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade , meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies ). The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a MONOPHYLY, synonymous with the uncommon term HOLOPHYLY. Monophyly is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly , as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. Thus, a paraphyletic group is 'nearly' monophyletic (hence the prefix 'para', meaning 'near' or 'alongside'.) A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects); the features by which the group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor
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Anatomy
ANATOMY is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. Anatomy
Anatomy
(Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy
Anatomy
is inherently tied to embryology , comparative anatomy , evolutionary biology , and phylogeny , as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine . The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy . Macroscopic anatomy, or gross anatomy , is the examination of an animal's body parts using unaided eyesight . Gross anatomy
Gross anatomy
also includes the branch of superficial anatomy
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Ontogeny
ONTOGENY (also ONTOGENESIS or MORPHOGENESIS ) is the origination and development of an organism , usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan. Ontogeny is the developmental history of an organism within its own lifetime, as distinct from phylogeny , which refers to the evolutionary history of a species. In practice, writers on evolution often speak of species as "developing" traits or characteristics. This can be misleading. While developmental (i.e., ontogenetic) processes can influence subsequent evolutionary (e.g., phylogenetic) processes (see evolutionary developmental biology ), individual organisms develop (ontogeny), while species evolve (phylogeny). Ontogeny, embryology and developmental biology are closely related studies and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably
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Stereocilia
STEREOCILIA (or STEREOVILLI) are non-motile apical modifications of the cell, which are distinct from cilia and microvilli , but closely related to the latter. In structure, they are longer than typical microvilli, and have more of the characteristics of the cellular membrane proper. Like microvilli, they contain actin filaments , distinguishing them from microtubule-containing cilia. They are found in three regions of the body: * the ductus deferens * the epididymis (see stereocilia (epididymis) for more details). Some sources consider epididymal stereocilia to be a variant of microvilli, rather than their own distinct type of structure. * the sensory (hair) cells of the inner ear (see stereocilia (inner ear) for more details)REFERENCES * ^ Krause J. William (July 2005). Krause\'s Essential Human Histology
Histology
for Medical Students. Universal-Publishers. pp. 37–. ISBN 978-1-58112-468-2
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Clade
A CLADE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants , and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life ". The common ancestor may be an individual, a population , a species (extinct or extant ), and so on right up to a kingdom . Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms. Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Spiral Valve
A SPIRAL VALVE or SCROLL VALVE is the corkscrew shaped lower portion of the intestine of some sharks , Acipenseriformes (sturgeon and paddlefish ), rays , skates , bichirs , and lungfishes . A modification of the ileum , the spiral valve is internally twisted or coiled to increase the surface area of the intestine, to increase nutrient absorption. The intestines of a shark are much shorter than those of mammals. Sharks have compensated for this problem by having a spiral valve, or a scroll valve, inside the intestine to increase the absorbent surface of the intestine. By keeping digestible material in the ileum for an extended period maximum nutrient absorption is ensured. For this reason, many sharks and related fish feed very infrequently. The food passes into the comparatively short colon of the shark almost fully digested, and then out the cloaca and vent
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