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Cutwork
CUTWORK or CUT WORK, also known as punto tagliato in Italian, is a needlework technique in which portions of a textile , typically cotton or linen, are cut away and the resulting "hole" is reinforced and filled with embroidery or needle lace . Cutwork
Cutwork
is related to drawn thread work . In drawn thread work, typically only the warp or weft threads are withdrawn (cut and removed), and the remaining threads in the resulting hole are bound in various ways. In other types of cutwork, both warp and weft threads may be drawn. Needlework styles that incorporate cutwork include broderie anglaise , Carrickmacross lace , whitework , early reticella , Spanish cutwork, hedebo, and jaali which is prevalent in India
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Italian Renaissance
Timeline Italy
Italy
portal * v * t * e The ITALIAN RENAISSANCE (Italian : Rinascimento ) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance
Renaissance
, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy
Italy
during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe
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Petticoat
A PETTICOAT or UNDERSKIRT is an article of clothing ; specifically an undergarment to be worn under a skirt or a dress. The petticoat is a separate garment hanging from the waist (unlike the chemise ). In historical contexts (sixteenth to mid-nineteenth centuries), petticoat refers to any separate skirt worn with a gown , bedgown , bodice or jacket ; these petticoats are not, strictly speaking, underwear as they were made to be seen. In both historical and modern contexts, petticoat refers to skirt-like undergarments worn for warmth or to give the skirt or dress the desired fashionable shape. In this context a petticoat may be called a waist slip or underskirt (UK) or half slip (US), with petticoat restricted to extremely full garments. Petticoat
Petticoat
can also refer to a full-length slip in the UK, although this usage is somewhat old-fashioned
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Elizabethan Era
The ELIZABETHAN ERA is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
(1558–1603). Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history. The symbol of Britannia
Britannia
was first used in 1572, and often thereafter, to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the Spanish — at the time, a rival kingdom much hated by the people of the land. In terms of the entire century, the historian John Guy (1988) argues that " England
England
was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors " than at any time in a thousand years. This "golden age" represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry, music and literature
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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WEFT
In weaving , the WEFT (sometimes WOOF) is the thread or yarn which is drawn through, inserted over-and-under, the lengthwise WARP yarns that are held in tension on a frame or loom to create cloth . Warp is the lengthwise or longitudinal thread in a roll, while weft is the transverse thread. A single thread of the weft, crossing the warp, is called a pick. Terms do vary (for instance, in North America
North America
, the weft is sometimes referred to as the FILL or the FILLING YARN). Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a WARP END or END. The weft is a thread or yarn usually made of spun fibre. The original fibres used were wool , flax and cotton . Today, man-made fibres are often used in weaving. Because the weft does not have to be stretched on a loom in the way that the warp is, it can generally be less strong. The weft is threaded through the warp using a "shuttle ", air jets or "rapier grippers"
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Embroidery Stitch
In everyday language, a STITCH in the context of embroidery or hand-sewing is defined as the movement of the embroidery needle from the backside of the fabric to the front side and back to the back side. The thread stroke on the front side produced by this is also called stitch. In the context of embroidery, an EMBROIDERY STITCH means one or more stitches that are always executed in the same way, forming a figure. Embroidery
Embroidery
stitches are also called stitches for short. Embroidery
Embroidery
stitches are the smallest units in embroidery. Embroidery patterns are formed by doing many embroidery stitches, either all the same or different ones, either following a counting chart on paper, following a design painted on the fabric or even working freehand
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Textile
A TEXTILE or CLOTH is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread ). Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool , flax , cotton , hemp , or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving , knitting , crocheting , knotting , or felting . The words FABRIC and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking ) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. A fabric is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth)
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Warp (weaving)
In weaving , the WEFT (sometimes WOOF) is the thread or yarn which is drawn through, inserted over-and-under, the lengthwise WARP yarns that are held in tension on a frame or loom to create cloth . Warp is the lengthwise or longitudinal thread in a roll, while weft is the transverse thread. A single thread of the weft, crossing the warp, is called a pick. Terms do vary (for instance, in North America
North America
, the weft is sometimes referred to as the FILL or the FILLING YARN). Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called a WARP END or END. The weft is a thread or yarn usually made of spun fibre. The original fibres used were wool , flax and cotton . Today, man-made fibres are often used in weaving. Because the weft does not have to be stretched on a loom in the way that the warp is, it can generally be less strong. The weft is threaded through the warp using a "shuttle ", air jets or "rapier grippers"
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Needlework
NEEDLEWORK is decorative sewing and textile arts handicrafts . Anything that uses a needle for construction can be called needlework. Needlework
Needlework
may include related textile crafts such as crochet , worked with a hook , or tatting , worked with a shuttle. Similar abilities often transfer well between different varieties of needlework, such as fine motor skill and a knowledge of textile fibres . Some of the same tools may be used in several different varieties of needlework
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Suzani (textile)
SUZANI is a type of embroidered and decorative tribal textile made in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and other Central Asian countries. Suzani is from the Persian سوزن Suzan which means needle . The art of making such textiles in Iran
Iran
is called سوزن‌دوزی Suzandozi (needlework). Suzanis usually have a cotton (sometimes silk ) fabric base, which is embroidered in silk or cotton thread. Chain , satin , and buttonhole stitches are the primary stitches used. There is also extensive use of couching , in which decorative thread laid on the fabric as a raised line is stitched in place with a second thread
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Whitework Embroidery
WHITEWORK EMBROIDERY refers to any embroidery technique in which the stitching is the same color as the foundation fabric (traditionally white linen ). Styles of whitework embroidery include most drawn thread work , broderie anglaise , Hardanger embroidery
Hardanger embroidery
, Mountmellick embroidery and reticella . Whitework embroidery
Whitework embroidery
is one of the techniques employed in heirloom sewing for blouses , christening gowns , baby bonnets , and other small articles. REFERENCES * S.F.A. Caulfield and B.C
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Surface Embroidery
SURFACE EMBROIDERY is any form of embroidery in which the pattern is worked by the use of decorative stitches and laid threads on top of the foundation fabric or canvas rather than through the fabric; it is contrasted with canvas work . Much free embroidery is also surface embroidery, as are a few forms of counted-thread embroidery such as cross stitch . Forms of surface embroidery include: * Applique
Applique
* Art needlework * Crewel embroidery * Cross stitch
Cross stitch
* Goldwork * Jacobean embroidery * Stumpwork Examples of surface embroideries include: * Bayeux Tapestry
Bayeux Tapestry
* Quaker tapestry REFERENCES * ^ Reader's Digest Complete Guide to Needlework. The Reader's Digest Association, Inc. (March 1992)
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Needlepoint
NEEDLEPOINT is a form of counted thread embroidery in which yarn is stitched through a stiff open weave canvas . Most needlepoint designs completely cover the canvas. Although needlepoint may be worked in a variety of stitches, many needlepoint designs use only a simple tent stitch and rely upon color changes in the yarn to construct the pattern. The degree of detail in needlepoint depends on the thread count of the underlying mesh fabric. Needlepoint
Needlepoint
worked on fine canvas is known as petit point . Due to the inherent stiffness of needlepoint, common uses include eyeglass cases, holiday ornaments, pillows, purses, upholstery, and wall hangings
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Quillwork
QUILLWORK is a form of textile embellishment traditionally practiced by Native Americans that employs the quills of porcupines as an aesthetic element. Quills from bird feathers were also occasionally used in quillwork. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Technique * 3 Today * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Backside of loomed quillwork collected from an Upper Missouri tribe by the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
, pre-1804. All natural dyes . Collection of the University of Pennsylvania Museum Porcupine
Porcupine
quillwork is an art form completely unique to North America
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