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Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
or cuttles[2] are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs. Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 in), with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching 50 cm (20 in) in mantle length and over 10.5 kg (23 lb) in mass.[3] Cuttlefish
Cuttlefish
eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish
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Decapodiformes
?†Boletzkyida Sepiida Sepiolida Spirulida Myopsida OegopsidaSynonymsDecembrachiata Winckworth, 1932 Decapodiformes
Decapodiformes
is a superorder of Cephalopoda, which includes all species with ten limbs; the name derives from the Greek word meaning ten feet. The ten limbs are divided into eight short arms and two long tentacles. It is hypothesized that the ancestral coleoid had five identical pairs of limbs, and that one branch of descendants evolved a modified arm pair IV to become the Decapodiformes, while another branch of descendants evolved and then eventually lost its arm pair II, becoming the Octopodiformes. The Decapodiformes
Decapodiformes
include:?Order †Boletzkyida Clade †Belemnoidea[2] Order Spirulida: ram's horn squid Order Sepiida: cuttlefish Order Sepiolida: pygmy, bobtail and bottletail squid Order Myopsida: coastal squid[3] Order Oegopsida: neritic squid[4]References[edit]^ Young, R
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Sublittoral
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore. In coastal environments the littoral zone extends from the high water mark, which is rarely inundated, to shoreline areas that are permanently submerged. It always includes this intertidal zone and is often used to mean the same as the intertidal zone. However, the meaning of "littoral zone" can extend well beyond the intertidal zone. There is no single definition. What is regarded as the full extent of the littoral zone, and the way the littoral zone is divided into subregions, varies in different contexts (lakes and rivers have their own definitions). The use of the term also varies from one part of the world to another, and between different disciplines. For example, military commanders speak of the littoral in ways that are quite different from marine biologists. The adjacency of water gives a number of distinctive characteristics to littoral regions
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium.[4] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language in Italy, and subsequently throughout the western Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, French, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus
Cyprus
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records.[3] Its writing system has been the
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Pigment
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light. Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures. For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken. Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food, and other materials
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Greco-Roman World
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman (/ˌɡrɛkoʊˈroʊmən/ or /ˌɡrɛkəˈroʊmən/); spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea
Black Sea
basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e
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Middle Low German
Middle Low German
Low German
or Middle Saxon ( ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon
Old Saxon
and the ancestor of modern Low German. It served as the international lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was spoken from about 1100 to 1600, or 1200 to 1650.Contents1 Related languages 2 History 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksRelated languages[edit] Middle Low German
Low German
is a term used with varying degrees of inclusivity. It is distinguished from Middle High German, spoken to the south, which was later replaced by Early New High German
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Old Norse
Old Norse
Old Norse
was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. The Proto-Norse language
Proto-Norse language
developed into Old Norse
Old Norse
by the 8th century, and Old Norse
Old Norse
began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid- to late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse
Old Norse
is found well into the 15th century.[2] Old Norse
Old Norse
was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them
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Old English
Old English
Old English
(Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon,[2] is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is an informal unit of geologic time,[1] subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Marine (ocean)
An ocean (from Ancient Greek Ὠκεανός, transc. Okeanós, the sea of classical antiquity[1]) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.[2] On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World
World
Ocean
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Family (biology)
Family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin
Latin
in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family". What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Order (biology)
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Karl Alfred Von Zittel
Karl Alfred Ritter
Ritter
von Zittel (25 September 1839 – 5 January 1904) was a German palaeontologist.Contents1 Biography 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] He was born at Bahlingen
Bahlingen
in the Grand Duchy of Baden, and educated at Heidelberg, Paris
Paris
and Vienna. For a short period he served on the Geological Survey of Austria, and as assistant in the mineralogical museum at Vienna. In 1863 he became teacher of geology and mineralogy in the polytechnic at Karlsruhe, and three years later he succeeded Oppel as professor of palaeontology in the University of Munich, with the charge of the state collection of fossils. In 1880 he was appointed to the geological professorship, and eventually to the directorship of the natural history museum of Munich
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