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Culture Of Belarus
The CULTURE OF BELARUS is the product of a millennium of development under the impact of a number of diverse factors. These include the physical environment ; the ethnographic background of Belarusians (the merger of Slavic newcomers with Baltic natives); the paganism of the early settlers and their hosts; Eastern Orthodox Christianity as a link to the Byzantine literary and cultural traditions; the country's lack of natural borders; the flow of rivers toward both the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea ; and the variety of religions in the region (Catholicism, Orthodoxy, Judaism, and Islam). An early Western influence on Belarusian culture was Magdeburg Law—charters that granted municipal self-rule and were based on the laws of German cities
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Counter-Reformation
The COUNTER-REFORMATION ( Latin
Latin
: Contrareformatio), also called the CATHOLIC REFORMATION (Latin: Reformatio Catholica) or the CATHOLIC REVIVAL, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years\' War (1648)
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Reformation
Waldensians · Savonarola · Lollards · Western Schism · Hussites · Northern Renaissance
Northern Renaissance
· German mysticism Start of the
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Yakub Kolas
YAKUB KOLAS (also JAKUB KOłAS, Belarusian : Яку́б Ко́лас, November 3 1882 – August 13, 1956), real name Kanstancin Mickievič (Міцке́віч Канстанці́н Міха́йлавіч) was a Belarusian writer, People's Poet of the Byelorussian SSR (1926), and member (1928) and vice-president (from 1929) of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences . In his works, Yakub Kolas
Yakub Kolas
was known for his sympathy towards the ordinary Belarusian peasantry. This was evident in his pen name 'Kolas', meaning 'ear of grain' in Belarusian. He wrote collections of poems Songs of Captivity (1908) and Songs of Grief (Belarusian : Песьні-жальбы, 1910), poems A New Land (Belarusian : Новая зямля, 1923) and Simon the Musician (Belarusian : Сымон-музыка, 1925), stories, and plays
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Opera
OPERA (Italian: ; English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere ) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto ) and musical score , usually in a theatrical setting . In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative , a speech-inflected style and arias , a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre , such as acting , scenery , and costumes and sometimes includes dance . The performance is typically given in an opera house , accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble , which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor . Opera
Opera
is a key part of the Western classical music tradition
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Faust
FAUST is the protagonist of a classic German legend , based on the historical Johann Georg Faust (c. 1480–1540). Faust is a scholar who is highly successful yet dissatisfied with his life, which leads him to make a pact with the Devil , exchanging his soul for unlimited knowledge and worldly pleasures. The Faust legend has been the basis for many literary, artistic, cinematic, and musical works that have reinterpreted it through the ages. "Faust" and the adjective "FAUSTIAN" imply a situation in which an ambitious person surrenders moral integrity in order to achieve power and success for a delimited term
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Old Belarusian
RUTHENIAN (OLD UKRAINIAN, or OLD BELARUSIAN, see other names ) was the group of varieties of Eastern Slavonic spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
. The written form is also called CHANCERY SLAVONIC by Lithuanian linguists. Scholars do not agree whether Ruthenian was a separate language, or a Western dialect or set of dialects of Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
, but it is agreed that Ruthenian has a close genetic relationship with it. Old East Slavic was the colloquial language used in Kyivan Rus\' (10th–13th centuries). Ruthenian can be seen as a predecessor of modern Ukrainian and Belarusian
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The Bible
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e The BIBLE (from Koine Greek
Koine Greek
τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía , "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews
Jews
and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; a number of Bible
Bible
canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents
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Grodno
GRODNO or HRODNA (Belarusian : Гродна, Hrodna ; Russian : Гродно, tr. Grodno; IPA: , see also other names ) is a city in western Belarus
Belarus
. It is located on the Neman close to the borders of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
(about 20 km (12 mi) and 30 km (19 mi) away respectively). It has 365,610 inhabitants (2016 census). It is the capital of Grodno Region and Grodno District
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Slutsk
SLUTSK (officially transliterated as SLUCK, Belarusian : Слуцк; Russian : Слуцк; Polish : Słuck, Lithuanian : Sluckas) is a town in Belarus
Belarus
, located on the Sluch River 105 km (65 mi) south of Minsk . As of 2010 its population is of 61,400. Slutsk
Slutsk
is the administrative center of Slutsk
Slutsk
Raion
Raion
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Jewish
Jewish
community * 4 People * 5 International relations * 5.1 Twin towns — brother cities * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Gallery * 9 External links GEOGRAPHYThe town is situated in the south-west of its Region, 26 km (16 mi) north of Soligorsk . HISTORY Slutsk
Slutsk
was first mentioned in writing in 1116
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Minsk
MINSK (Belarusian : Мінск, pronounced ; Russian : Минск, ), is the capital and largest city of Belarus
Belarus
, on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers. It is the administrative capital of the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS). As the national capital, Minsk
Minsk
has a special administrative status in Belarus
Belarus
and is the administrative centre of Minsk Region (voblast ) and Minsk
Minsk
raion (district). In 2013, it had a population of 2,002,600. The earliest historical references to Minsk
Minsk
date to the 11th century (1067), when it was noted as a provincial city within the Principality of Polotsk
Polotsk
. The settlement developed on the rivers. In 1242, Minsk became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania

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Francysk Skaryna
FRANCYSK SKARYNA or FRANCISK SKORINA (pronounced ; Latin : Franciscus Scorina, Belarusian : Францыск (Францішак ) Скарына; Polish : Franciszek Skaryna; ca. 1490–before 29 January 1552) was a Belarusian humanist, physician, translator and one of the first book printers in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
, laying the groundwork for the development of the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Later life * 3 Religion * 4 Publishing activities * 5 Books * 6 Legacy * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONSkaryna was born into the family of a wealthy merchant in Polatsk
Polatsk
, then a major trade and manufacturing center of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania . His older brother, Ivan, was also a merchant. The brothers had a property, possibly ancestral, in Polatsk
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Antoni Radziwiłł
Prince ANTONI HENRYK RADZIWIłł (Polish pronunciation: ; 13 June 1775 – 7 April 1833) was a Polish and Prussian noble , aristocrat , musician and politician. Initially a hereditary Duke of Nieśwież and Ołyka , as a scion of the Radziwiłł family
Radziwiłł family
he also held the honorific title of a Reichsfürst of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Between 1815 and 1831 he acted as Duke-Governor (Polish : książę-namiestnik, German : Statthalter) of the Grand Duchy of Posen , an autonomous province of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
created out of Greater Polish lands annexed in the Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland

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Stanisław Moniuszko
STANISłAW MONIUSZKO Polish pronunciation: (May 5, 1819, Ubiel , Minsk Governorate – June 4, 1872, Warsaw
Warsaw
, Congress Poland
Congress Poland
) was a Polish composer , conductor and teacher . He wrote many popular art songs and operas , and his music is filled with patriotic folk themes of the peoples of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (predominantly the Poles
Poles
, Lithuanians and Belarusians ). He is generally referred to as "the father of Polish national opera "
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Pesniary
PESNIARY (also spelled PESNYARY, Belarusian : Песняры, ) was a popular Soviet Belarusian folk rock VIA . It was founded in 1969 by guitarist Vladimir Mulyavin . Before 1970 the band was known under the name LIAVONY (Лявоны). CONTENTS * 1 Style * 2 Biography * 3 Discography * 4 Lineup * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STYLE Pesniary
Pesniary
combined various types of music, but it mostly used Belarusian folklore though often with various psychedelic rock elements and later rock as well. Several of Pesniary's songs were composed by Alexandra Pakhmutova . The surprising influence of early Frank Zappa
Frank Zappa
was also notable. The band often used lyrics from the famous Russian and Belarusian poets of the past. Pesniary's favourite was Yanka Kupala
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Vladimir Mulyavin
VLADIMIR MULYAVIN (Russian : Влади́мир Гео́ргиевич Муля́вин; Belarusian : Уладзімір Мулявін (Uladzimir Muliavin); 12 January 1941 – 26 January 2003) was a Belarusian rock musician and the founder of the folk-rock band Pesniary
Pesniary
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 With the Pesniary
Pesniary
* 3 Personal life * 4 Legacy * 5 References * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYVladimir Muliavin was born in Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
) in the family of a worker at the Uralmash plant . He started playing the guitar at the age of 12. In 1956, after graduating from school , he entered Sverdlovsk Musical School, department of stringed instruments . He was expelled from the school for misconduct and an overt interest in jazz , nevertheless he was reinstated after some time, and he left the school by own initiative
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