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Cuban Son
Son cubano
Son cubano
is a genre of music and dance that originated in the highlands of eastern Cuba
Cuba
during the late 19th century. It is a syncretic genre that amalgamates elements of Spanish and African origin. Among its fundamental Hispanic components are the vocal style, lyrical metre and the primacy of the tres, derived from the Spanish guitar. On the other hand, its characteristic clave rhythm, call and response structure and percussion section (bongo, maracas, etc.) are all rooted in traditions of Bantu origin.[1] Around 1909 the son reached Havana, where the first recordings were made in 1917.[2] This marked the start of its expansion throughout the island, becoming Cuba's most popular and influential genre.[3] While early groups had between three and five members, during the 1920s the sexteto (sextet) became the genre's primary format
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Bandurria
The bandurria is a plucked chordophone from Spain, similar to the mandolin, primarily used in Spanish folk music, but also found in former Spanish colonies.Contents1 Instrument development 2 Variations and uses in different parts of the world2.1 Spain 2.2 Philippines 2.3 South America 2.4 United Kingdom3 Notable players and music 4 See also 5 ReferencesInstrument development[edit] Prior to the 18th century, the bandurria had a round back, similar or related to the mandore.[1] It had become a flat-backed instrument by the 18th century, with five double courses of strings, tuned in fourths.[1] The original bandurrias of the Medieval
Medieval
period had three strings. During the Renaissance
Renaissance
they gained a fourth string. During the Baroque
Baroque
period the bandurria had 10 strings (5 pairs). The modern bandurria has 12 strings (6 pairs)
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Metre (poetry)
In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse. Many traditional verse forms prescribe a specific verse metre, or a certain set of metres alternating in a particular order. The study and the actual use of metres and forms of versification are both known as prosody
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Montuno
Montuno has several meanings pertaining to Cuban music and its derivatives. Literally, montuno means 'comes from the mountain', and so son montuno may refer to the older type of son played in the mountainous rural areas of Oriente. Another possibility is that the word "Montuno" comes from the word "Montura" which is the Spanish word for "Saddle", because the rhythm in son music is like riding a horse. Or it may mean the final section of a song-based composition; in this sense it is simply part of a piece of music. Here it is usually a faster, brasher, semi-improvised instrumental section, sometimes with a repetitive vocal refrain. Finally, the term montuno is also used for a piano guajeo,[1] the ostinato figure accompanying the montuno section, when it describes a repeated syncopated piano vamp, often with chromatic root movement.[2] References[edit]^ Mauleón, Rebeca (1999). 101 Montunos. Petaluma, CA: Sher Publishing. ^ Orovio, Helio 2004. Cuban music from A to Z
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Santiago De Cuba
Santiago de Cuba is the second-largest city of Cuba and the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province. It lies in the southeastern area of the island, some 870 km (540 mi) southeast of the Cuban capital of Havana. The municipality extends over 1,023.8 square kilometers (395.3 sq mi),[2] and contains the communities of Antonio Maceo, Bravo, Castillo Duany, Daiquirí, El Caney, El Cobre, El Cristo,[3] Guilera, Leyte Vidal, Moncada and Siboney.[4] Historically Santiago de Cuba has long been the second-most important city on the island after Havana, and still remains the second-largest. It is on a bay connected to the Caribbean Sea and is an important sea port
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Guantánamo
Guantánamo
Guantánamo
(Spanish: [ɡwanˈtanamo]) is a municipality and city in southeast Cuba
Cuba
and capital of Guantánamo
Guantánamo
Province. Guantánamo
Guantánamo
is served by the Caimanera
Caimanera
port near the site of a U.S. naval base. The area produces sugarcane and cotton wool. These are traditional parts of the economy.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Overview 2.2 United States
United States
Naval Base3 Demographics3.1 Famous Guantanameros4 Transport 5 The song "Guantanamera" 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksHistory[edit] See also: Timeline of Guantánamo The city was founded in 1797[1] in the area of a farm named Santa Catalina
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Changüí
Changüí
Changüí
is a style of Cuban music
Cuban music
which originated in the early 19th century in the eastern region of Guantánamo Province, specifically Baracoa. It arose in the sugar cane refineries and in the rural communities populated by slaves. Changüí
Changüí
combines the structure and elements of Spain's canción and the Spanish guitar with African rhythms and percussion instruments of Bantu origin
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Early Cuban Bands
Early Cuban bands
Early Cuban bands
played popular music for dances and theatres during the period 1780–1930. During this period Cuban music became creolized, and its European and African origins gradually changed to become genuinely Cuban. Instrumentation and music continually developed during this period
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Oriente Province
Oriente (Spanish for "East" or "Orient") was one of six provinces of Cuba
Cuba
until 1976. It was known as " Santiago de Cuba
Santiago de Cuba
Province" before 1905. The name is still used to refer to the eastern part of the country. The provincial capital was Santiago de Cuba. Fidel and Raúl Castro were born there. The province was split up in 1976, with the administrative re-adjustment proclaimed by Cuban Law Number 1304 of July 3, 1976.[1] Historical Oriente is currently represented by 5 provinces:Las Tunas Province Granma Province Holguín
Holguín
Province Santiago de Cuba
Santiago de Cuba
Province Guantánamo
Guantánamo
ProvinceContents1 History1.1 List of governors2 Municipalities 3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksHistory[edit] Diego Velazquez founded the capital of Oriente province in 1514 and named it Santiago de Cuba
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Classical Guitar
The classical guitar (also known as concert guitar, classical acoustic, nylon-string guitar, or Spanish guitar) is the member of the guitar family used in classical music. It is an acoustical wooden guitar with strings made of nylon, rather than the metal strings used in acoustic and electric guitars. For a right-handed player, the traditional classical guitar has twelve frets clear of the body and is properly held on the left leg, so that the hand that plucks or strums the strings does so near the back of the soundhole (this is called the classical position)
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Guajira (music)
The Guajira is a music genre derived from the Punto cubano. According to some specialists on this theme,[1] the Punto cubano was known in Spain since the 18th century, where it was called "punto de La Habana", and by the second half of the 19th century it was adopted by the incipient Spanish Flamenco
Flamenco
style, which included it within its "palos" with the name of Guajira.[2] The popular Guajira genre was utilized by Spanish Zarzuela
Zarzuela
composers, such as Ruperto Chapí, who included it in his well known play "La Revoltosa", from 1897
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Call And Response
Call and response is a form of interaction between a speaker and an audience in which the speaker's statements ("calls") are punctuated by responses from the listeners.[1] It falls in the general category of antiphony. African cultures[edit] In African cultures, call-and-response is a pervasive pattern of democratic participation—in public gatherings, in the discussion of civic affairs, in religious rituals, as well as in vocal and instrumental musical expression (see call and response in music). It is this tradition that African bondsmen and bondswomen have transmitted over the years in various forms of expression—in religious observance; public gatherings; even in children's rhymes; and, most notably, in music in its multiple forms: gospel, blues, rhythm and blues, jazz, hip-hop and go-go.[citation needed] Many work songs sung on plantations by enslaved men and women also incorporate the call and response format
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Maracas
Maraca
Maraca
( pronunciation (help·info)), sometimes called rumba shaker, shac-shac,[1] and various other names, is a rattle which appears in many genres of Caribbean and Latin music. It is shaken by a handle, and usually played as part of a pair. Maracas (Mbaracás[2]), also known as tamaracas, were rattles of divination, an oracle of the Brazilian Tupinamba Indians, found also with other Indian tribes (Garifuna, Guarani), and on the Orinoco
Orinoco
and in Florida. Rattles made from gourds (Lagenaria) are being shaken by the natural grip, while the round calabash (Crescentia) fruits are fitted to a handle.[3] Human hair is sometimes fastened on the top, and a slit is cut in it to represent a mouth, through which their shamans (payes) made it utter its responses. A few pebbles are inserted to make it rattle, and it is crowned with the red feathers of the Goaraz. Every man had his maraca
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Bantu Peoples
Bantu peoples
Bantu peoples
is used as a general label for the 300–600 ethnic groups in Africa who speak Bantu languages.[1] They inhabit a geographical area stretching east and southward from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region down to Southern Africa.[1] Bantu is a major branch of the Niger–Congo
Niger–Congo
language family spoken by most populations in Africa
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Sextet
A sextet (or hexad) is a formation containing exactly six members. The former term is commonly associated with vocal ensembles (e.g. The King's Singers, Affabre Concinui) or musical instrument groups, but can be applied to any situation where six similar or related objects are considered a single unit.[1][2] Many musical compositions are named for the number of musicians for which they are written. If a piece is written for six performers, it may be called a "sextet"
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