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Cu Spaceflight
SPACEFLIGHT (also written SPACE FLIGHT) is ballistic flight into or through outer space . Spaceflight
Spaceflight
can occur with spacecraft with or without humans on board. Examples of human spaceflight include the U.S. Apollo Moon
Moon
landing and Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
programs and the Russian Soyuz program , as well as the ongoing International Space Station
International Space Station
. Examples of unmanned spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit , as well as satellites in orbit around Earth
Earth
, such as communications satellites . These operate either by telerobotic control or are fully autonomous
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Moon
The MOON is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth
Earth
, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite . It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary ). Following Jupiter
Jupiter
's satellite Io , the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
Earth
. The most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon
Moon
formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth
Earth
and a Mars
Mars
-sized body called Theia
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Orbital Spaceflight
An ORBITAL SPACEFLIGHT (or ORBITAL FLIGHT) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit . To do this around the Earth
Earth
, it must be on a free trajectory which has an altitude at perigee (altitude at closest approach) above 100 kilometers (62 mi); this is, by at least one convention, the boundary of space . To remain in orbit at this altitude requires an orbital speed of ~7.8 km/s. Orbital speed is slower for higher orbits, but attaining them requires greater delta-v . Due to atmospheric drag , the lowest altitude at which an object in a circular orbit can complete at least one full revolution without propulsion is approximately 150 km (90 mi). The expression "orbital spaceflight" is mostly used to distinguish from sub-orbital spaceflights , which are flights where the apogee of a spacecraft reaches space, but the perigee is too low
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Interplanetary Spaceflight
CORE CONCEPTS * Planetary habitability * Space and survival * Space habitat * Terraforming * Interplanetary travel
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Interstellar Travel
CORE CONCEPTS * Planetary habitability * Space and survival * Space habitat * Terraforming * Interplanetary travel
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Intergalactic Travel
CORE CONCEPTS * Planetary habitability * Space and survival * Space habitat * Terraforming * Interplanetary travel
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Sub-orbital Spaceflight
A SUB-ORBITAL SPACEFLIGHT is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space , but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it does not complete one orbital revolution. For example, the path of an object launched from Earth
Earth
that reaches 100 km (62 mi) above sea level , and then falls back to Earth, is considered a sub-orbital spaceflight. Some sub-orbital flights have been undertaken to test spacecraft and launch vehicles later intended for orbital spaceflight . Other vehicles are specifically designed only for sub-orbital flight; examples include manned vehicles such as the X-15 and SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne
, and unmanned ones such as ICBMs and sounding rockets . Flights which attain sufficient velocity to go into low Earth
Earth
orbit , and then de-orbit before completing their first full orbit, are not considered sub-orbital
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List Of Orbits
The following is a list of types of orbits : CONTENTS * 1 Centric classifications * 2 Altitude
Altitude
classifications for geocentric orbits * 3 Inclination
Inclination
classifications * 4 Eccentricity classifications * 5 Synchronicity classifications * 6 Orbits in galaxies or galaxy models * 7 Special
Special
classifications * 8 Pseudo-orbit classifications * 9 See also * 10 References CENTRIC CLASSIFICATIONS * Galactocentric orbit : An orbit about the center of a galaxy . The Sun
Sun
follows this type of orbit about the galactic center of the Milky Way . * Heliocentric orbit : An orbit around the Sun
Sun
. In the Solar System , all planets , comets , and asteroids are in such orbits, as are many artificial satellites and pieces of space debris
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Reusable Launch System
A REUSABLE LAUNCH SYSTEM (RLS, or REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE, RLV) is a launch system which is capable of launching a payload into space more than once. This contrasts with expendable launch systems , where each launch vehicle is launched once and then discarded. No completely reusable orbital launch system has ever been created. Two partially reusable launch systems were developed, the Space Shuttle and Falcon 9. The Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
was partially reusable: the orbiter (which included the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
main engines and the Orbital Maneuvering System engines), and the two solid rocket boosters were reused after several months of refitting work for each launch. The external tank was discarded after each flight. The Falcon 9 rocket has a reusable first stage ; several of these stages have been safely returned to land after launch
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Launch Vehicle
In spaceflight , a LAUNCH VEHICLE or CARRIER ROCKET is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface into outer space . A LAUNCH SYSTEM includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad , and other infrastructure. Although a carrier rocket's payload is often an artificial satellite placed into orbit , some spaceflights, such as sounding rockets , are sub-orbital , while others enable spacecraft to escape Earth orbit entirely. Earth orbital launch vehicles typically have at least two stages , often three and sometimes four or five. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 By launch platform * 1.2 By size * 1.3 Suborbital * 1.4 Orbital * 1.5 Translunar and interplanetary * 2 Return to launch site * 3 Assembly * 4 Regulation * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links TYPES A Saturn V
Saturn V
launch vehicle sends Apollo 15
Apollo 15
on its way to the Moon
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Escape Velocity
In physics , ESCAPE VELOCITY is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body. The escape velocity from Earth
Earth
is about 11.186 km/s (6.951 mi/s; 40,270 km/h; 25,020 mph) at the surface. More generally, escape velocity is the speed at which the sum of an object's kinetic energy and its gravitational potential energy is equal to zero; an object which has achieved escape velocity is neither on the surface, nor in a closed orbit (of any radius). With escape velocity in a direction pointing away from the ground of a massive body, the object will move away from the body, slowing forever and approaching, but never reaching, zero speed. Once escape velocity is achieved, no further impulse need be applied for it to continue in its escape
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Non-rocket Spacelaunch
NON-ROCKET SPACELAUNCH refers to concepts for launch into space where some or all of the needed speed and altitude are provided by something other than rockets , or by other than expendable rockets . A number of alternatives to expendable rockets have been proposed. In some systems such as skyhook , rocket sled launch , rockoon and air launch , a rocket would be part, but only part of the system used to reach orbit. Present-day launch costs are very high – $2,500 to $15,000 per kilogram from Earth
Earth
to low Earth
Earth
orbit (LEO). As a result, launch costs are a large percentage of the cost of all space endeavors. If launch can be made cheaper the total cost of space missions will be reduced. Fortunately, due to the exponential nature of the rocket equation , providing even a small amount of the velocity to LEO by other means has the potential of greatly reducing the cost of getting to orbit
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Space Agency
This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration . As of 2017, 71 different government space agencies are in existence; 13 of those have launch capability. Six government space agencies - the Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO), the European Space Agency (ESA), the China
China
National Space Administration (CNSA), the Japan
Japan
Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Agency (RFSA or Roscosmos) have full launch capabilities; these include the ability to launch and recover multiple satellites, deploy cryogenic rocket engines and operate extraterrestrial probes. Only three currently operating government space agencies in the world - RFSA and the CNSA and NASA
NASA
are capable of human spaceflight as of 2017
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European Space Agency
The EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY (ESA; French : Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; German : Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space . Established in 1975 and headquartered in Paris , France
France
, ESA
ESA
has a worldwide staff of about 2,000 and an annual budget of about €5.25 billion / US$5.77 billion (2016). ESA's space flight programme includes human spaceflight (mainly through participation in the International Space Station
International Space Station
programme); the launch and operation of unmanned exploration missions to other planets and the Moon; Earth observation, science and telecommunication; designing launch vehicles; and maintaining a major spaceport , the Guiana Space Centre
Guiana Space Centre
at Kourou , French Guiana
French Guiana

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NASA
The NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ( NASA
NASA
/ˈnæsə/ ) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program , as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
established NASA
NASA
in 1958 with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science . The National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958
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Indian Space Research Organisation
Coordinates : 12°58′0″N 77°34′0″E / 12.96667°N 77.56667°E / 12.96667; 77.56667 Indian Space Research Organization भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन BHāRATīYA ANTARIKṣA ANUSAṃDHāN SANGATHAN ISRO logo ACRONYM ISRO OWNER Government of India
India
ESTABLISHED 15 August 1969 (1969-08-15) (1962 as INCOSPAR ) HEADQUARTERS Bangalore
Bangalore
, Karnataka
Karnataka
, India
India
PRIMARY SPACEPORT Satish Dhawan Space Centre , Sriharikota , Andhra Pradesh MOTTO मानव जाति की सेवा में अंतरिक्ष प्रौद्योगिकी (Hindi ) IAST : Mānav Jāti Kī Sevā Men Antarikṣa Praudyogikī (Space technology in the Service of humankind.) ADMINISTRATOR A. S
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