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Cu Spaceflight
CU Spaceflight
Spaceflight
is a student-run Cambridge University
Cambridge University
society founded with the aim of achieving cheap access to space
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Teddy Bears
A teddy bear is a soft toy in the form of a bear. Developed apparently simultaneously by toymakers Morris Michtom in the U.S. and Richard Steiff in Germany in the early years of the 20th century, and named after President Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt, the teddy bear became an iconic children's toy, celebrated in story, song, and film.[1] Since the creation of the first teddy bears which sought to imitate the form of real bear cubs, "teddies" have greatly varied in form, style, color, and material
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Speed Of Sound
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium. In dry air at 0 °C (32 °F), the speed of sound is 331.2 metres per second (1,087 ft/s; 1,192 km/h; 741 mph; 644 kn). At 20 °C (68 °F), the speed of sound is 343 metres per second (1,125 ft/s; 1,235 km/h; 767 mph; 667 kn), or a kilometre in 2.91 s or a mile in 4.69 s. The speed of sound in an ideal gas depends only on its temperature and composition. The speed has a weak dependence on frequency and pressure in ordinary air, deviating slightly from ideal behavior. In common everyday speech, speed of sound refers to the speed of sound waves in air. However, the speed of sound varies from substance to substance: sound travels most slowly in gases; it travels faster in liquids; and faster still in solids
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Earth's Atmosphere
The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth
Earth
and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
protects life on Earth
Earth
by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen,[2] 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere
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Paraglider
Paragliding
Paragliding
is the recreational and competitive adventure sport of flying paragliders: lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure.[1] The pilot sits in a harness suspended below a fabric wing. Wing shape is maintained by the suspension lines, the pressure of air entering vents in the front of the wing, and the aerodynamic forces of the air flowing over the outside. Despite not using an engine, paraglider flights can last many hours and cover many hundreds of kilometers, though flights of one to two hours and covering some tens of kilometers are more the norm
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Launch System
In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface into outer space. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, the launch pad, and other infrastructure.[1] Although a carrier rocket's payload is often an artificial satellite placed into orbit, some spaceflights, such as sounding rockets, are sub-orbital, while others enable spacecraft to escape Earth orbit entirely. Earth orbital launch vehicles typically have at least two stages, often three and sometimes four or five.Contents1 Types1.1 By launch platform 1.2 By size 1.3 Suborbital 1.4 Orbital 1.5 Translunar and interplanetary2 Return to launch site 3 Distributed launch 4 Assembly 5 Regulation 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTypes[edit]A Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the Moon.Expendable launch vehicles are designed for one-time use. They usually separate from their payload and disintegrate during atmospheric reentry
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Upper Atmosphere
The mesosphere (/ˈmɛsoʊsfɪər/; from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the mesopause. In the mesosphere, temperature decreases as the altitude increases. The upper boundary of the mesosphere is the mesopause, which can be the coldest naturally occurring place on Earth[citation needed] with temperatures below −143 °C (−225 °F; 130 K)
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Solid-fuel Rocket
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). The earliest rockets were solid-fuel rockets powered by gunpowder; they were used in warfare by the Chinese, Indians, Mongols and Persians, as early as the 13th century.[1] All rockets used some form of solid or powdered propellant up until the 20th century, when liquid-propellant rockets offered more efficient and controllable alternatives. Solid rockets are still used today in model rockets and on larger applications for their simplicity and reliability. Since solid-fuel rockets can remain in storage for long periods, and then reliably launch on short notice, they have been frequently used in military applications such as missiles. The lower performance of solid propellants (as compared to liquids) does not favor their use as primary propulsion in modern medium-to-large launch vehicles customarily used to orbit commercial satellites and launch major space probes
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Sub-orbital Spaceflight
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution. For example, the path of an object launched from Earth
Earth
that reaches 100 km (62 mi) above sea level, and then falls back to Earth, is considered a sub-orbital spaceflight. Some sub-orbital flights have been undertaken to test spacecraft and launch vehicles later intended for orbital spaceflight. Other vehicles are specifically designed only for sub-orbital flight; examples include manned vehicles such as the X-15 and SpaceShipOne, and unmanned ones such as ICBMs and sounding rockets. Flights which attain sufficient velocity to go into low Earth
Earth
orbit, and then de-orbit before completing their first full orbit, are not considered sub-orbital
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Kármán Line
The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of 100 km (62 mi; 330,000 ft) above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
and outer space.[2] This definition is accepted by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), which is an international standard-setting and record-keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. The line is named after Theodore von Kármán
Theodore von Kármán
(1881–1963), a Hungarian American
Hungarian American
engineer and physicist, who was active primarily in aeronautics and astronautics
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Rockoon
A rockoon (from rocket and balloon) is a solid fuel sounding rocket that, rather than being immediately lit while on the ground, is first carried into the upper atmosphere by a gas-filled balloon, then separated from the balloon and ignited. This allows the rocket to achieve a higher altitude, as the rocket does not have to move under power through the lower and thicker layers of the atmosphere. The original concept was developed by Cmdr. Lee Lewis, Cmdr. G. Halvorson, S. F. Singer, and James A. Van Allen
James A. Van Allen
during the Aerobee rocket firing cruise of the U.S.S. Norton Sound on March 1, 1949. A serious disadvantage is that balloons cannot be steered[citation needed] and consequently neither the direction the launched rocket moves[citation needed] in nor the region where it will fall is easily adjustable[citation needed]
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Atmospheric Drag
An atmosphere (from Greek ἀτμός (atmos), meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα (sphaira), meaning 'sphere'[1][2]) is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body. An atmosphere is more likely to be retained if the gravity it is subject to is high and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is composed of nitrogen (about 78%), oxygen (about 21%), argon (about 0.9%) with carbon dioxide and other gases in trace amounts. Oxygen
Oxygen
is used by most organisms for respiration; nitrogen is fixed by bacteria and lightning to produce ammonia used in the construction of nucleotides and amino acids; and carbon dioxide is used by plants, algae and cyanobacteria for photosynthesis. The atmosphere helps to protect living organisms from genetic damage by solar ultraviolet radiation, solar wind and cosmic rays
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Rocket Fuel
Rocket
Rocket
propellant is either a high oxygen containing fuel or a compound of fuel plus oxidant, whose combustion takes place, in a definite and controlled manner with the evolution of a huge volume of gas. In the rocket engine, the propellant is burnt in the combustion chamber and the hot jet of gases (usually at very high pressures, with combustion temperatures approaching 3000K) escapes through the nozzle at very high velocity. Rocket
Rocket
propellant is a material used by a rocket as, or to produce in a chemical reaction, the reaction volume (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion. Each rocket type requires different kind of propellant: Chemical rockets require propellants capable of undergoing exothermic chemical reactions, which provide the energy to accelerate the resulting gases through the nozzle
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Rocket Motor
A rocket engine is a type of jet engine[1] that uses only stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet. Rocket
Rocket
engines are reaction engines, obtaining thrust in accordance with Newton's third law. Most rocket engines are internal combustion engines, although non-combusting forms (such as cold gas thrusters) also exist. Vehicles propelled by rocket engines are commonly called rockets. Since they need no external material to form their jet, rocket engines can perform in a vacuum and thus can be used to propel spacecraft and ballistic missiles. Compared to other types of jet engines, rocket engines are by far the lightest, and have the highest thrust, but are the least propellant-efficient (they have the lowest specific impulse). The ideal exhaust is hydrogen, the lightest of all gases, but chemical rockets produce a mix of heavier species, reducing the exhaust velocity
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High Altitude
Altitude
Altitude
or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more). As a general definition, altitude is a distance measurement, usually in the vertical or "up" direction, between a reference datum and a point or object. The reference datum also often varies according to the context
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The Guardian
The Guardian
The Guardian
is a British daily newspaper. It was known from 1821 until 1959 as the Manchester
Manchester
Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and the Guardian Weekly, The Guardian
The Guardian
is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust
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