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Cryogenian
The CRYOGENIAN ( /kraɪoʊˈdʒɛniən/ , from Greek κρύος (krýos), meaning "cold" and γένεσις (génesis), meaning "birth") is a geologic period that lasted from 720 to 635 million years ago . It forms the second geologic period of the Neoproterozoic Era , preceded by the Tonian Period and followed by the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
. The Sturtian and Marinoan glaciations occurred during the Cryogenian period, which are the greatest ice ages known to have occurred on Earth. These events are the subject of much scientific controversy . The main debate contests whether these glaciations covered the entire planet (the so-called " Snowball Earth ") or a band of open sea survived near the equator (termed "slushball Earth")
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Parts Per Million
In science and engineering , the PARTS-PER NOTATION is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities , e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction . Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement . Commonly used are PPM (parts-per-million, 10−6), PPB (parts-per-billion, 10−9), PPT (parts-per-trillion , 10−12) and PPQ (parts-per-quadrillion, 10−15). This notation is not part of the SI system and its meaning is ambiguous. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy * 2 Parts-per expressions * 3 Criticism * 3.1 Long and short scales * 3.2 Thousand
Thousand
vs. trillion * 3.3 Mass fraction vs. mole fraction vs
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Carbon Dioxide
CARBON DIOXIDE (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth\'s atmosphere as a trace gas . The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm ) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes , hot springs and geysers , and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater , rivers and lakes , ice caps , glaciers and seawater . It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas . Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is odorless at normally encountered concentrations, however, at high concentrations, it has a sharp and acidic odor
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Mammal
MAMMALS are the vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪliə/ from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones , and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the largest animal on the planet, the blue whale . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae
Plantae
Subkingdom: Embryophyta
Embryophyta
(unranked): Spermatophyta
Spermatophyta
(unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion ("case" or "casing") and sperma ("seed")
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population density SYNONYMS Species
Species
synonymy * aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 * australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * capensis Broom, 1917 * columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 * drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 * eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) * grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 * grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 * hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 * neptunianus Bory de St
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Cambrian Explosion
The CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION or CAMBRIAN RADIATION was the relatively short span event, occurring approximately 541 million years ago in the Cambrian
Cambrian
period , during which most major animal phyla appeared, as indicated by the fossil record. Lasting for about the next 20 –25 million years, it resulted in the divergence of most modern metazoan phyla. Additionally, the event was accompanied by major diversification of other organisms. Prior to the Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion, most organisms were simple, composed of individual cells occasionally organized into colonies . Over the following 70 to 80 million years, the rate of diversification accelerated by an order of magnitude and the diversity of life began to resemble that of today. Almost all present animal phyla appeared during this period
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Oxygen
OXYGEN is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table , a highly reactive nonmetal , and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds . By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium . At standard temperature and pressure , two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen , a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth\'s atmosphere . As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth\'s crust
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Water
WATER is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms . Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms that are connected by covalent bonds . Strictly speaking, water refers to the liquid state of a substance that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure ; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice ) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor ). It also occurs in nature as snow, glaciers , ice packs and icebergs , clouds, fog , dew , aquifers , and atmospheric humidity . Water
Water
covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life
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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi
Fungi
are sometimes grouped in the kingdom PROTISTA . A EUKARYOTE (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/ ) is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes . Eukaryotes belong to the taxon EUKARYA or EUKARYOTA. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells ( Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea
Archaea
) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope . The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek εὖ (eu, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (karyon, "nut" or "kernel")
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Jurassic
The JURASSIC ( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/ ; from Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic Era , also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event . Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian/ Toarcian event in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian event at the end; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions
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Evolution Of Photosynthesis
The EVOLUTION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS refers to the origin and subsequent evolution of photosynthesis , the process by which light energy synthesizes sugars from carbon dioxide , releasing oxygen as a waste product. The first photosynthetic organisms probably evolved early in the evolutionary history of life and most likely used reducing agents such as hydrogen or electrons, rather than water. There are three major metabolic pathways by which photosynthesis is carried out: C3 photosynthesis , C4 photosynthesis , and CAM photosynthesis . C3 photosynthesis is the oldest and most common form
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Unicellular Organism
A UNICELLULAR ORGANISM, also known as a SINGLE-CELLED ORGANISM, is an organism that consists of only one cell , unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell. Historically, simple unicellular organisms have been referred to as MONADS, though this term is also used more specifically to describe organisms of the genus Monas and similar flagellate ameboids. The main groups of unicellular organisms are bacteria , archaea , protozoa , unicellular algae , and unicellular fungi . Unicellular organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. Unicellular organisms are thought to be the oldest form of life, with early protocells possibly emerging 3.8–4 billion years ago. Prokaryotes , most Protista
Protista
, and some fungi are unicellular. Although some of these organisms live in colonies , they don't exhibit specialization
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Timeline Of The Evolutionary History Of Life
This TIMELINE OF THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF LIFE represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth
Earth
. In biology , evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization , from kingdoms to species , and individual organisms and molecules , such as DNA
DNA
and proteins . The similarities between all present day organisms indicate the presence of a common ancestor from which all known species, living and extinct , have diverged through the process of evolution. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth
Earth
are estimated to be extinct
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Dinosaur
DINOSAURS are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade DINOSAURIA. They first appeared during the Triassic
Triassic
period, between 243 and 231 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic
Jurassic
and Cretaceous
Cretaceous
periods. The fossil record indicates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs , having evolved from earlier theropods during the late Jurassic
Jurassic
Period. As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous– Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago
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Age Of The Earth
The AGE OF THE EARTH is approximately 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years (4.54 × 109 years ± 1%). This dating is based on evidence from radiometric age-dating of meteorite material and is consistent with the radiometric ages of the oldest-known terrestrial and lunar samples . Following the development of radiometric age-dating in the early 20th century, measurements of lead in uranium-rich minerals showed that some were in excess of a billion years old. The oldest such minerals analyzed to date—small crystals of zircon from the Jack Hills of Western Australia
Western Australia
—are at least 4.404 billion years old. Calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions —the oldest known solid constituents within meteorites that are formed within the Solar System —are 4.567 billion years old, giving a lower limit for the age of the solar system
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