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Crusades
AFTER 1291 * Poor 1309 * Shepherds\' 1320 * Smyrniote 1343–1351 * Alexandrian 1365 * Savoyard 1366 * Barbary 1390 * Nicopolis 1396 * Varna
Varna
1443 * Portuguese 1481 NORTHERN CRUSADES (1147–1410) * Wendish 1147 * Swedish * 1150 * 1249 * 1293 * Livonian 1198–1290 * Prussian 1217–1274 * Lithuanian 1283–1410 AGAINST CHRISTIANS * Bosnian 1235–1241 * Albigensian 1209–1229 * Aragonese 1284/5 * Despenser\'s 1382/3 * Hussite 1419–1434 ------------------------- * BOOK:THE CRUSADES * PORTAL:CRUSADES Map of the Eastern Mediterranean in 1135. The Frankish Crusader states are indicated with a red cross ☩: Kingdom of Jerusalem , County of Tripoli
County of Tripoli
, Principality of Antioch
Principality of Antioch
, County of Edessa
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Book
A BOOK is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it. The most common modern form of book is a codex volume consisting of rectangular paper pages bound on one side, with a heavier cover and spine, so that it can fan open for reading. Books have taken other forms, such as scrolls , leaves on a string, or strips tied together; and the pages have been of parchment , vellum , papyrus , bamboo slips , palm leaves , silk , wood , and other materials. The contents of books are also called books, as are other compositions of that length. For instance, Aristotle
Aristotle
's Physics , the constituent sections of the Bible , and even the Egyptian Book
Book
of the Dead are called books independently of their physical form. Conversely, some long literary compositions are divided into books of varying sizes , which typically do not correspond to physically bound units
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Shepherds' Crusade (1251)
The SHEPHERDS\\' CRUSADE OF 1251 was a popular movement in northern France
France
aimed at rescuing King Louis IX during the Seventh Crusade
Seventh Crusade
. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Formation * 3 Dispersal * 4 References * 5 Sources * 6 External links BACKGROUND Plaque commemorating the Shepherds' Crusade in Orléans. In 1249, Saint Louis IX of France
France
went away on crusade , leaving his mother, Blanche of Castile
Blanche of Castile
, as regent during his absence. Louis was defeated and captured in Egypt
Egypt
. When news of this reached France
France
the next year, both nobles and peasants were deeply distressed; the king was well-loved and it was inconceivable to them that such a pious man could be defeated by heathens
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Shepherds' Crusade (1320)
The SHEPHERDS\\' CRUSADE OF 1320 was a popular movement in northern France
France
aimed to help the Reconquista of Iberia . CONTENTS * 1 Causes * 2 Beginnings * 3 Progress * 4 Aftermath * 5 References * 6 Sources CAUSESThe causes are complex; however, at that time a wake of famines had set in related to climatic changes (the "little ice age ") and the economic situation for the rural poor had deteriorated. Furthermore, there were prophecies and talks about a new crusade. Also, indebtedness to Jewish moneylenders had been apparently eliminated with their eviction by King Philip the Fair in 1306; however, his son Louis X brought them back and became a partner in the recovery of their debts
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Crusade Of The Poor
The CRUSADE OF THE POOR was an unauthorised military expedition undertaken in the spring and summer of 1309 by from England , Brabant , northern France and the German Rhineland
Rhineland
. Responding to an appeal for support for a crusade to the Holy Land , the men, overwhelmingly poor, marched to join the small professional army being assembled with Papal approval. Along the way, the engaged in looting, persecution of Jews
Jews
and combat with local authorities. None of them reached the Holy Land and their expedition ultimately dispersed. Acre , the last remaining city of the Kingdom of Jerusalem , fell to the Mamluks in 1291. In August 1308, Pope Clement V issued instructions for the preaching of a crusade to be launched against the Mamluks in the spring of 1309
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Rubenids
The RUBENIDS (Armenian : Ռուբինեաններ) or ROUPENIDS were an Armenian dynasty who dominated parts of Cilicia
Cilicia
, and who established the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia . The dynasty takes its name from its founder, the Armenian prince Ruben I . The Rubenids were princes, later kings, of Cilicia
Cilicia
from around 1080 until they were surpassed by the Hethumids in the mid-thirteenth century. The new Armenian state established very close relations with European countries and played a very important role during the Crusades
Crusades
, providing the Christian
Christian
armies a haven and provisions on their way towards Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Intermarriage with European crusading families was common, and European religious, political, and cultural influence was strong
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Crusader (other)
CRUSADER may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Military * 2 Transportation * 3 Aircraft * 4 Comics * 5 Games * 6 Media * 7 Novels * 8 Film and television * 9 Music * 9.1 Albums * 9.2 Groups * 10 Sport clubs * 10.1 Athletics * 10.2 Rugby * 10.3 Cricket * 10.4 Football * 11 Other uses * 12 See also MILITARY * Crusader, a participant in one of the Crusades
Crusades

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County Of Tripoli
The COUNTY OF TRIPOLI (1109–1289) was the last of the Crusader states . It was founded in the Levant
Levant
in the modern-day region of Tripoli , northern Lebanon
Lebanon
and parts of western Syria
Syria
which supported an indigenous population of Christians , Druze
Druze
and Muslims . When the Christian
Christian
Crusaders – mostly Frankish forces – captured the region in 1109, Bertrand of Toulouse became the first Count of Tripoli as a vassal of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem . From that time, rule of the county was decided not strictly by inheritance but by factors such as military force (external and civil war ), favour and negotiation. In 1289 the County of Tripoli
County of Tripoli
fell to Sultan Qalawun
Qalawun
of the Muslim Mamluks of Cairo
Cairo

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County Of Edessa
The COUNTY OF EDESSA was one of the Crusader states
Crusader states
in the 12th century. Its seat was the city of Edessa (present-day Şanlıurfa
Şanlıurfa
, Turkey
Turkey
). In the late Byzantine period, Edessa became the centre of intellectual life within the Syriac Orthodox Church
Syriac Orthodox Church
. As such it also became the centre for the translation of Ancient Greek philosophy
Ancient Greek philosophy
into Syriac , which provided a stepping stone for the subsequent translations into Arabic . When the Crusades
Crusades
arrived, it was still important enough to tempt a side-expedition after the Siege of Antioch . Baldwin of Boulogne, the first Count of Edessa , became King of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, and subsequent counts were his cousins. Unlike the other Crusader states, the County was landlocked
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Principality Of Antioch
The PRINCIPALITY OF ANTIOCH was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade which included parts of modern-day Turkey
Turkey
and Syria
Syria
. The principality was much smaller than the County of Edessa or the Kingdom of Jerusalem . It extended around the northeastern edge of the Mediterranean , bordering the County of Tripoli
County of Tripoli
to the south, Edessa
Edessa
to the east, and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
or the Kingdom of Armenia to the northwest, depending on the date. It had roughly 20,000 inhabitants in the 12th century, most of whom were Armenians
Armenians
and Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
Christians, with a few Muslims outside the city itself
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Crusade (other)
THE CRUSADES were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period, especially the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Islamic rule
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Portuguese Expedition To Otranto
AFTER 1291 * Poor 1309 * Shepherds\' 1320 * Smyrniote 1343–1351 * Alexandrian 1365 * Savoyard 1366 * Barbary 1390 * Nicopolis 1396 * Varna 1443 * Portuguese 1481NORTHERN CRUSADES (1147–1410) * Wendish 1147 * Swedish * 1150 * 1249 * 1293 * Livonian 1198–1290 * Prussian 1217–1274 * Lithuanian 1283–1410 AGAINST CHRISTIANS * Bosnian 1235–1241 * Albigensian 1209–1229 * Aragonese 1284/5 * Despenser\'s 1382/3 * Hussite 1419–1434 RECONQUISTA (718–1492) ------------------------- * BOOK:THE CRUSADES * PORTAL:CRUSADES The PORTUGUESE EXPEDITION TO OTRANTO in 1481, which the Portuguese call the TURKISH CRUSADE (Portuguese : Cruzada Turca), arrived too late to participate in any fighting. On 8 April 1481, Pope Sixtus IV issued the papal bull Cogimur iubente altissimo, in which he called for a crusade against the Turks, who occupied Otranto in southern Italy
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Crusade Of Varna
AFTER 1291 * Poor 1309 * Shepherds\' 1320 * Smyrniote 1343–1351 * Alexandrian 1365 * Savoyard 1366 * Barbary 1390 * Nicopolis 1396 * Varna
Varna
1443 * Portuguese 1481 NORTHERN CRUSADES (1147–1410) * Wendish 1147 * Swedish * 1150 * 1249 * 1293 * Livonian 1198–1290 * Prussian 1217–1274 * Lithuanian 1283–1410 AGAINST CHRISTIANS * Bosnian 1235–1241 * Albigensian 1209–1229 * Aragonese 1284/5 * Despenser\'s 1382/3 * Hussite 1419–1434 RECONQUISTA (718–1492) ------------------------- * BOOK:THE
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Hussite Wars
Hussite victory * Hussite church becomes free from the Papacy * Compromise between the Utraquist Hussites
Hussites
and the Council * Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor becomes King of Bohemia BELLIGERENTS
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Savoyard Crusade
AFTER 1291 * Poor 1309 * Shepherds\' 1320 * Smyrniote 1343–1351 * Alexandrian 1365 * Savoyard 1366 * Barbary 1390 * Nicopolis 1396 * Varna
Varna
1443 * Portuguese 1481 NORTHERN CRUSADES (1147–1410) * Wendish 1147 * Swedish * 1150 * 1249 * 1293 * Livonian 1198–1290 * Prussian 1217–1274 * Lithuanian 1283–1410 AGAINST CHRISTIANS * Bosnian 1235–1241 * Albigensian 1209–1229 * Aragonese 1284/5 * Despenser\'s 1382/3 * Hussite 1419–1434 ------------------------- * BOOK:THE CRUSADES * PORTAL:CRUSADES The SAVOYARD CRUSADE (1366–67) was born out of the same planning that led to the Alexandrian Crusade . It was the brainchild of Pope Urban V and was led by Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy
Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy
, against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in eastern Europe
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