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Crown Lands
Crown land, also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown. It is the equivalent of an entailed estate and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in Commonwealth realms such as Canada and Australia, crown land is considered public land and is apart from the monarch's private estate. In Britain, the hereditary revenues of Crown lands provided income for the monarch until the start of the reign of George III, when the profits from the Crown Estate were surrendered to the Parliament of Great Britain in return for a fixed civil list payment
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Demesne
In the feudal system, the demesne (/dɪˈmeɪn/ di-MAYN) was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants
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Austro-Hungarian Compromise Of 1867
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
(German: Ausgleich, Hungarian: Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. The Compromise partially re-established[1] the sovereignty of the Kingdom of Hungary, separate from, and no longer subject to the Austrian Empire. According to Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, "There were three of us who made the agreement: Deák, Andrássy and myself."[2] The Hungarian political leaders had two main goals during the negotiations. One was to regain the traditional status (both legal and political) of the Hungarian state, which was lost after the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
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Administrative Division
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration. Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are usually required to manage themselves through their own local governments. Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. A country may be divided into provinces, which, in turn, are divided into counties, which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities. Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories, with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control
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Emperor Of Austria
The Emperor
Emperor
of Austria (German: Kaiser von Österreich) was a hereditary imperial title and position proclaimed in 1804 by Holy Roman Emperor
Emperor
Francis II, a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and continually held by him and his heirs until Charles I relinquished power in 1918
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March Constitution Of Austria
The March Constitution, Imposed March Constitution or Stadion Constitution (German: Oktroyierte Märzverfassung or Oktroyierte Stadionverfassung) was a "irrevocable" constitution of the Austrian Empire promulgated by Minister of the Interior Count Stadion between 4 March and 7 March 1849 until it was revoked by the New Year's Eve Patent (Silvesterpatent) of Emperor Franz Joseph I on 31 December 1851.[1][2] The Stadion Constitution was very centralist in nature, and it provided very strong power for the monarch, it also marked the way of the neo-absolutism in the Habsburg ruled territories.[3] It had preempted the Kremsier Constitution of the Kremsier Parliament
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February Patent
The February Patent
February Patent
was a constitution of the Austrian Empire promulgated in the form of letters patent on 26 February 1861.Contents1 Background 2 Adoption 3 Suspension 4 Notes 5 ReferencesBackground[edit] In the Austrian Empire, the early 1860s were a period of significant constitutional reforms. The revolutions and unfortunate wars of the late 1840s-1850s had created a national sense of discontent. The disastrous war in Italy demonstrated openly the weaknesses of the Austrian bureaucracy and army. The burgeoning influence of Prussia and the German Confederation was also a cause for concern. Emperor Francis Joseph I (r.1848-1916) saw that, if he was to maintain his empire, he must begin some reforms. In March 1860, the Emperor began a ‘strengthening’ of the Reichsrat, the imperial council, by adding new members and giving it advisory powers over major financial and legislative issues, including the formation of a new constitution
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Franz Joseph I Of Austria
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.[1] From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was also President of the German Confederation. He was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria
Emperor of Austria
and King of Hungary, as well as the third-longest-reigning monarch of any country in European history, after Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
and Johann II of Liechtenstein.[2] In December 1848, Emperor Ferdinand abdicated the throne at Olomouc, as part of Minister-president
Minister-president
Felix zu Schwarzenberg's plan to end the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
in Hungary. This allowed Ferdinand's nephew Franz Joseph to accede to the throne
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Landstände
The Landstände (singular Landstand) or Landtage (singular Landtag) were the various territorial estates or diets in the Holy Roman Empire in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the early modern period, as opposed to their respective territorial lords (the Landesherrn).Contents1 Usage 2 History2.1 Precursor3 References 4 Literature 5 External linksUsage[edit] The structure of the Landstände was highly variable depending on the country and period of history. Furthermore, both the representatives of the older system, the Ständeordnung, where the estates were predominant, and the parliaments of the newer people's representative systems were called Landstände. The term Landtag was used, both under the Ständeordnung as well as the newer representative structures, for a general assembly of the estates or the parliament
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Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).[1][2][3] In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, which is the right to stand for election.[4] The combination of active and passive suffrage is sometimes called full suffrage.[5] Suffrage
Suffrage
is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage
Suffrage
describes not only the legal right to vote, but also the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or non-elected representatives. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives
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Kingdom Of Hungary
Magyar Királyság  (Hungarian) Regnum Hungariae  (Latin) Königreich Ungarn  (German)1000–1918 1920–1946Flag (1867-1918)Coat of armsMotto Regnum Mariae Patrona Hungariae[1] "Kingdom of Mary, the Patron of Hungary"Anthem Himnusz HymnRoyal anthem God save, God protect Our Emperor, Our Country!Kingdoms of Hungary (dark green) and Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914Capital BudapestHistorical capitals:Esztergom (10th to mid-13th century) Buda (mid-13th century to 1541)a Pressburg (1536–1783) Debrecen (1849) Székesfehérvár (place of diets, royal seat, crowning and burial site from 1000 to 1543)Languages Official languages:Latin (1000–1784; 1790–1844) German (1784–1790; 1849–1867) Hungarian (1836–1849; 1867–1946)Other spoken languages: Polish, Romanian, Slovak, Croatian, Slovene, Serbian, Italian, Ruthenian, Carpathian Romani,
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House Of Lorraine
Lorraine: 1738 – Francis I ceded title in accordance with the Treaty of Vienna, gaining Tuscany Holy Roman Empire, Luxembourg, Brabant, and Flanders: 1805 – Francis II & I ceded titles in accordance with the Peace of Pressburg Parma: 1847 – Marie Louise died without issue Tuscany: 1859 – Leopold II abdicated due to pressure from Italian nationalists Mexico: 1867 – Maximilian I executed by Liberal revolutionaries Austria, Hungary and Bohemia: 1918 – Charles I & IV relinquished participation in state affairs following the end of World War ICadet branchesVaudemont Guise (extinct) Habsburg-LorraineAustria-Este HohenbergThe House of Lorraine
House of Lorraine
(German: Haus Lothringen) originated as a cadet branch of the House of Metz. It inherited the Duchy of Lorraine
Duchy of Lorraine
in 1473 after the death of duke Nicholas I without a male heir
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Kingdom Of Croatia-Slavonia
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija; Hungarian: Horvát-Szlavón Királyság; German: Königreich Kroatien und Slawonien) was a nominally autonomous kingdom within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, created in 1868 by merging the kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement. It was associated with the Hungarian Kingdom within the dual Austro-Hungarian state, being within the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen or Transleithania. The kingdom was ruled by the Habsburg Emperor-King of Austria-Hungary (Kaiser und König) under his title as "King of Croatia and Slavonia". The King's appointed steward was the Ban of Croatia and Slavonia
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Corpus Separatum (Fiume)
Corpus separatum, a Latin
Latin
term meaning "separated body", refers to the status of the City of Fiume
Fiume
(modern Rijeka, Croatia) while given a special legal and political status different from its environment under the rule of the Kingdom of Hungary
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Real Union
Real union is a union of two or more states, which share some state institutions as in contrast to personal unions; however they are not as unified as states in a political union. It is a development from personal union and was usually limited to monarchies. Unlike personal unions, real unions almost exclusively led to a reduction of sovereignty for the politically weaker constituent. That was the case with Lithuania, Scotland and Norway
Norway
which came under the influence of stronger neighbors, Poland, England and Denmark respectively, with whom each of them had shared a personal union previously. The most notable example of such a move is the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen), which achieved equal status to Austria (which exercised control over the "Cisleithanian" crown lands) in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
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Prince-elector
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (German: Kurfürst ( listen (help·info)), pl. Kurfürsten, Czech: Kurfiřt, Latin: Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire. From the 13th century onwards, the Prince-Electors had the privilege of electing the King of the Romans, who would be crowned by the Pope as Holy Roman Emperor. Charles V was the last to be a crowned Emperor (elected 1519, crowned 1530); his successors were elected Emperors directly by the electoral college, each being titled "Elected Emperor of the Romans" (German: erwählter Römischer Kaiser; Latin: electus Romanorum imperator)
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