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Cross Pattée (crown)
A cross pattée (or "cross patty" or "cross Pate", known also as "cross formée/formy" or croix pattée) is a type of Christian
Christian
cross, which has arms narrow at the center, and often flared in a curve or straight line shape, to be broader at the perimeter. The form appears very early in medieval art, for example in a metalwork treasure binding given to Monza Cathedral
Monza Cathedral
by Queen Theodelinda
Theodelinda
(d. 628), and the 8th century lower cover of the Lindau Gospels
Lindau Gospels
in the Morgan Library. An early English example from the start of the age of heraldry proper (i.e
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Bolnisi Cross
The Bolnisi cross
Bolnisi cross
(Georgian: ბოლნისის ჯვარი bolnisis ǰvari) is a cross symbol, taken from a 5th-century ornament at the Bolnisi Sioni
Bolnisi Sioni
church, which came to be used as a national symbol of Georgia. It is a variant of the Cross
Cross
pattée popular in Christian symbolism of late antiquity and the early medieval period
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San Bevignate
Coordinates: 43°06′38″N 12°24′33″E / 43.1106°N 12.4093°E / 43.1106; 12.4093The church of San Bevignate
San Bevignate
in Perugia. San Bevignate
San Bevignate
is a church in Perugia, Umbria, central Italy. It dates to the mid 13th century, and was expanded by the Knights Templar
Knights Templar
in the 1280s. It is notable for its 13th-century frescoes
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Crown Of Queen Elizabeth
The Crown
The Crown
of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, also known as The Queen Mother's Crown, is the crown made for Queen Elizabeth, the wife of King George VI, to wear at their coronation in 1937 and State Openings of Parliament during her husband's reign. The crown was made by Garrard & Co., the Crown Jeweller at the time, and is modelled partly on the design of Queen Mary's Crown, though it differs by having four half-arches instead of eight. As with Queen Mary's Crown, its arches are detachable at the crosses pattée, allowing it to be worn as a circlet or open crown
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Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was the wife of King George VI
George VI
and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. She was Queen of the United Kingdom and the Dominions from her husband's accession in 1936 until his death in 1952, after which she was known as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother,[2] to avoid confusion with her daughter. She was the last Empress of India. Born into a family of British nobility, she came to prominence in 1923 when she married the Duke of York, the second son of King George V
King George V
and Queen Mary
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Imperial State Crown
The Imperial State Crown
Imperial State Crown
is one of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom and symbolises the sovereignty of the monarch. It has existed in various forms since the 15th century. The current version was made in 1937 and is worn by the monarch after a coronation ( St Edward's Crown
St Edward's Crown
having been used to crown the monarch) and used at the annual State Opening of Parliament. The crown is adorned with 2,901 precious stones, including the Cullinan II diamond, St Edward's Sapphire, the Stuart Sapphire, and the Black Prince's Ruby.Contents1 History1.1 Origin 1.2 Restoration to present day2 Description 3 Usage 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksHistory[edit] Origin[edit] St Edward's Crown, used to crown English monarchs, was considered to be a holy relic,[2] kept in the saint's shrine at Westminster Abbey and therefore not worn by monarchs at any other time
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Fleur-de-lis
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys)[pron 1] or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic
Catholic
saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily
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Black Prince's Ruby
The Black Prince's Ruby
Black Prince's Ruby
is a large, irregular cabochon red spinel weighing 170 carats (34 g) set in the cross pattée above the Cullinan II
Cullinan II
at the front of the Imperial State Crown
Imperial State Crown
of England.[1] The spinel is one of the oldest parts of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, with a history dating back to the middle of the 14th century
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St Edward's Crown
St Edward's Crown
St Edward's Crown
is the centrepiece of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom.[2] Named after Edward the Confessor, it has been traditionally used to crown English and British monarchs at their coronations since the 13th century. The original crown was a holy relic kept at Westminster Abbey, Edward's burial place, until the regalia were either sold or melted down after Parliament abolished the monarchy in 1649, during the English Civil War. The present version of St Edward's Crown
St Edward's Crown
was made for Charles II in 1661. It is solid gold, 30 centimetres (12 in) tall, weighs 2.23 kilograms (4.9 lb), and is decorated with 444 precious and semi-precious stones. The crown is similar in weight and overall appearance to the original, but its arches are Baroque. After 1689, it was not used to crown a monarch for over 200 years
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Imperial Crown Of India
The Imperial Crown of India
Imperial Crown of India
is the crown used by King George V
George V
in his capacity as Emperor of India
Emperor of India
at the Delhi Durbar
Delhi Durbar
of 1911.[1]Contents1 Origin 2 Description 3 Usage 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksOrigin[edit] English law prohibits the Crown Jewels from leaving the country, a product of the days when kings and queens often pawned the jewels to foreign buyers
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George V
George V
George V
(George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother Queen Victoria, George was third in the line of succession behind his father, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, and his own elder brother, Prince Albert Victor. From 1877 to 1891, George served in the Royal Navy, until the unexpected death of his elder brother in early 1892 put him directly in line for the throne. On the death of his grandmother in 1901, George's father became King-Emperor
King-Emperor
of the British Empire
British Empire
as Edward VII, and George was created Prince of Wales. He succeeded his father in 1910
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Emperor Of India
Emperor (or Empress) of India was a title used by the British monarchs during the British Raj
British Raj
in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
from 1876 (see Royal Titles Act 1876) until 1948,[a][1][2] after India had gained independence from the United Kingdom, when for a transitional period the British monarch was also king of the independent dominions of India and Pakistan. The term "Emperor of India" is also used to refer to pre-British Indian emperors (see List of Indian monarchs)
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Knights Templar
The Crusades, including: Siege of Ascalon (1153) Battle of Montgisard
Battle of Montgisard
(1177) Battle of Marj Ayyun (1179) Battle of Hattin
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Perugia
Perugia
Perugia
(Italian pronunciation: [peˈruːdʒa] ( listen); Latin: Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria
Umbria
in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia. The city is located about 164 kilometres (102 miles) north of Rome
Rome
and 148 km (92 miles) southeast of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around the area
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Christian
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Freemasonry
Freemasonry
Freemasonry
or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman
Journeyman
or fellow (now called Fellowcraft), and Master Mason. These are the degrees offered by Craft (or Blue Lodge) Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Freemasons or Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, and are usually administered by different bodies than the craft degrees. The basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry
Freemasonry
is the Lodge
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