HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff

picture info

Criminal Organization
Organized crime
Organized crime
is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for so-called "protection".[1] Gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can also be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate; the network, subculture and community of criminals may be referred to as the underworld.[2] European sociologists (e.g
[...More...]

Organized Crime (other)
Organized crime
Organized crime
is groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. Organized Crime may also refer to: Music[edit]Organized Crime (album) by, Mambo Kurt Organized Crime (album) by, TreatThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Organized crime. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the inten
[...More...]

picture info

Prisoner
A prisoner, (also known as an inmate or detainee) is a person who is deprived of liberty against his or her will. This can be by confinement, captivity, or by forcible restraint. The term applies particularly to those on trial or serving a prison sentence in a prison.[1]Contents1 English law 2 History 3 Psychological effects3.1 In solitary confinement 3.2 Stockholm syndrome4 Inmate culture4.1 Convict code5 Rights5.1 United States6 Types 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksEnglish law[edit] "Prisoner" is a legal term for a person who is imprisoned.[2] In section 1 of the Prison
Prison
Security Act 1992, the word "prisoner" means any person for the time being in a prison as a result of any requirement imposed by a court or otherwise that he be detained in legal custody.[3] "Prisoner" was a legal term for a person prosecuted for felony
[...More...]

State Crime
State
State
may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media[edit] Music[edit]The State
[...More...]

picture info

State-corporate Crime
In criminology, the concept of state-corporate crime refers to crimes that result from the relationship between the policies of the state and the policies and practices of commercial corporations. The term was coined by Kramer and Michalowski (1990), and redefined by Aulette and Michalowski (1993). These definitions were intended to include all "socially injurious acts" and not merely those that are defined by the local criminal jurisdiction as crime. This is not universally accepted as a valid definition so a less contentious version has been adopted here
[...More...]

picture info

Victimless Crime
A victimless crime is an illegal act that typically either directly involves only the perpetrator, or occurs between consenting adults; because it is consensual in nature, there is arguably no true victim. Examples of these types of crimes include possession of illegal contraband, and atypical sexual behavior.[1] In most countries, current victimless crimes include recreational drug use, while some also include prostitution
[...More...]

picture info

White-collar Crime
White-collar crime
White-collar crime
refers to financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals.[1] Within criminology, it was first defined by sociologist Edwin Sutherland in 1939 as "a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation"
[...More...]

picture info

War Crime
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.[1] Examples of war crimes include intentionally killing civilians or prisoners, torturing, destroying civilian property, taking hostages, performing a perfidy, raping, using child soldiers, pillaging, declaring that no quarter will be given, and seriously violating the principles of distinction and proportionality, and military necessity. The concept of war crimes emerged at the turn of the twentieth century when the body of customary international law applicable to warfare between sovereign states was codified. Such codification occurred at the national level, such as with the publication of the Lieber Code in the United States, and at the international level with the adoption of the treaties during the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
[...More...]

picture info

Deterrence (legal)
Deterrence is the use of punishment as a threat which is considered as a means to prevent people from offending or to reduce the probability and/or level of offending. The concept of deterrence has two key assumptions: the first is that specific punishments imposed on offenders could prevent the offender from committing further crimes; the second is that fear of punishment could prevent others from committing similar crimes.[1] Deterrence is often contrasted with retributivism, which holds that punishment is a necessary consequence of a crime which the offender deserves and its severity should be calculated based on the gravity of the wrong done. Rehabilitation is another different approach which attempts to reform the offender rather than using punishment.Contents1 Categories1.1 Marginal deterrence2 Effectiveness 3 See also 4 ReferencesCategories[edit] Deterrence can be divided into three separate categories. Specific deterrence focuses on the individual in question
[...More...]

picture info

Incapacitation (penology)
Incapacitation in the context of criminal sentencing philosophy is the effect of a sentence in positively preventing (rather than merely deterring) future offending.Contents1 Definition 2 Scholarship 3 Examples3.1 United States 3.2 Australia 3.3 Elsewhere4 See also 5 ReferencesDefinition[edit] Imprisonment incapacitates prisoners by physically removing them from the society against which they are deemed to have offended or potentially may endanger. Long term imprisonment with the intention to incapacitate is often used by criminal justice systems against habitual criminals who recidivate (relapse)
[...More...]

picture info

Prison
A prison,[a] also known as a correctional facility, jail,[b] gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center[c] (American English) or remand center[d] is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most commonly used within a criminal justice system: people charged with crimes may be imprisoned until they are brought to trial; those pleading or being found guilty of crimes at trial may be sentenced to a specified period of imprisonment. Besides their use for punishing crimes, jails and prisons are frequently used by authoritarian regimes against perceived opponents. In American English, prison and jail are often treated as having separate definitions. The term prison or penitentiary tends to describe institutions that incarcerate people for longer periods of time, such as many years, and are operated by the state or federal governments
[...More...]

picture info

Prison Reform
Prison
Prison
reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration.[1][2][3]Contents1 History1.1 United Kingdom 1.2 United States 1.3 Europe2 Theories2.1 Retribution, vengeance and retaliation 2.2 Deterrence 2.3 Rehabilitation, reform and correction 2.4 Removal from society 2.5 Restitution or repayment 2.6 Reduction in immediate costs3 Examples3.1 United Kingdom 3.2 United States4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHistory[edit] Prison
Prison
populations of various countries in 2008Prisons have only been used as the primary punishment for criminal acts in the last few centuries
[...More...]

picture info

Prison Abolition Movement
The prison abolition movement is a movement that seeks to reduce or eliminate prisons and the prison system, and replace them with more humane and effective systems[1]. It is distinct from prison reform, which is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons; however, relying on prisons less could improve their conditions by reducing overcrowding.[2]:3 Some organizations such as the Anarchist Black Cross
Anarchist Black Cross
seek total abolishment of the prison system, not intending to replace it with other government-controlled systems. Many anarchist organizations believe that the best form of justice arises naturally out of social contracts
[...More...]

picture info

Prisoner Abuse
Prisoner
Prisoner
abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated, therefore deprived of the right of self-defense against acting authorities and generally defenseless in actual fact. Abuse falling into this category includes:Physical abuse: Illicit beating and hitting, unlawful corporal punishment, stress positions, excessive or prolonged physical restraining, etc. Psychological abuse: Verbal abuse, sleep deprivation, white noise, pointless/absurd or humiliating instructions, recurrent exhaustive inspections and shakedowns, arbitrary strip searches, denuding actions, exposure, etc. Sexual abuse: Excessive vaginal or rectal contraband searches or other internal checks, forced sexual intercourse, forced insertion of objects into vagina or rectum, arbitrary strip searches, denuding actions, etc
[...More...]

picture info

Political Crime
In criminology, a political crime or political offence is an offence involving overt acts or omissions (where there is a duty to act), which prejudice the interests of the state, its government, or the political system. It is to be distinguished from state crime, in which it is the states that break both their own criminal laws or public international law.[1] States will define as political crimes any behaviour perceived as a threat, real or imagined, to the state's survival, including both violent and non-violent oppositional crimes
[...More...]

picture info

Prisoners' Rights
The rights of civilian and military prisoners are governed by both national and international law. International conventions include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the United Nations' Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,[1] and the Convention on the Rights
Rights
of Persons with Disabilities[2]Contents1 Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act 2 See also 3 References 4 External links Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act[edit] Main article: Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act In the United States, the Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act, or PLRA, is a federal statute enacted in 1996 with the intent of limiting "frivolous lawsuits" by prisoners
[...More...]

.