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Creosote
Creosote
Creosote
is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel. They are typically used as preservatives or antiseptics.[2] Some creosote types were used historically as a treatment for components of seagoing and outdoor wood structures to prevent rot (e.g., bridgework and railroad ties, see image). Samples may be commonly found inside chimney flues, where the coal or wood burns under variable conditions, producing soot and tarry smoke. Creosotes are the principal chemicals responsible for the stability, scent, and flavor characteristic of smoked meat; the name is derived from Greek κρέας (kreas), meaning 'meat', and σωτήρ (sōtēr), meaning 'preserver'.[3] The two main kinds recognized in industry are coal-tar creosote and wood-tar creosote
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Coagulation
Coagulation
Coagulation
(also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot. It potentially results in hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, followed by repair. The mechanism of coagulation involves activation, adhesion, and aggregation of platelets along with deposition and maturation of fibrin. Disorders of coagulation are disease states which can result in bleeding (hemorrhage or bruising) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis).[1] Coagulation
Coagulation
is highly conserved throughout biology; in all mammals, coagulation involves both a cellular (platelet) and a protein (coagulation factor) component.[2] The system in humans has been the most extensively researched and is the best understood.[3] Coagulation
Coagulation
begins almost instantly after an injury to the blood vessel has damaged the endothelium lining the vessel
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Putrefaction
Putrefaction
Putrefaction
is the fifth stage of death, following pallor mortis, algor mortis, rigor mortis, and livor mortis. This process references the breaking down of a body of a human or animal post mortem (meaning after death). In broad terms, it can be viewed as the decomposition of proteins, and the eventual breakdown of the cohesiveness between tissues, and the liquefaction of most organs. This is caused by the decomposition of organic matter by bacterial or fungal digestion, which causes the release of gases that infiltrate the body's tissues, and leads to the deterioration of the tissues and organs. The approximate time it takes putrefaction to occur is dependent on various factors. Internal factors that affect the rate of putrefaction include the age at which death has occurred, the overall structure and condition of the body, the cause of death, and external injuries arising before or after death
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Phenol
29.1 (in acetonitrile)[3]UV-vis (λmax) 270.75 nm[4]Dipole moment1.224 DPharmacologyATC codeC05BB05 (WHO) D08AE03 (WHO), N01BX03 (WHO), R02AA19 (WHO)HazardsSafety data sheet [1]GHS pictograms [5]GHS hazard statementsH301, H311, H314, H331, H341, H373[5]GHS precautionary statementsP261, P280, P301+310, P305+351+338, P310[5]NFPA 7042 3 0Flash point 79 °C (174 °F; 352 K)Explosive limits 1.8–8.6%[2]Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):LD50 (median dose)317 mg/kg (rat, oral) 270 mg/kg (mouse, oral)[6]LDLo (lowest published)420 mg/kg (rabbit, oral) 500 mg/kg (dog, oral) 80 mg/kg (cat, oral)[6]LC50 (median concentration)19 ppm (mammal) 81 ppm (rat) 69 ppm (mouse)[6]US health exposure limits (NIOSH):PEL (Permissible)TWA 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) [skin][2]REL (Recommended)TWA 5 ppm (1
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Xylenol
Xylenols are organic compounds with the formula (CH3)2C6H3OH. They are volatile colorless solids or oily liquids. They are derivatives of phenol with two methyl groups and a hydroxyl group. Six isomers exist, of which 2,6-xylenol with both methyl group in an ortho position with respect to the hydroxyl group is the most important. The name xylenol is a portmanteau of the words xylene and phenol. 2,4-dimethylphenol together with other xylenols and many other compounds are traditionally extracted from coal tar, the volatile materials obtained in the production of coke from coal. These residue contains a few percent by weight of xylenols as well as cresols and phenol. The main xylenols in such tar are the 3,5-, 2,4, and 2,3- isomers
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Anthracene
Anthracene
Anthracene
is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of formula C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings. It is a component of coal tar. Anthracene
Anthracene
is used in the production of the red dye alizarin and other dyes. Anthracene
Anthracene
is colorless but exhibits a blue (400-500 nm peak) fluorescence under ultraviolet radiation.[8]Contents1 Occurrence and production 2 Reactions 3 Uses3.1 Niche 3.2 Derivatives4 Occurrence 5 Toxicology 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksOccurrence and production[edit] Coal tar, which contains around 1.5% anthracene, remains a major source of this material. Common impurities are phenanthrene and carbazole
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Santa Fe Railroad
The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
(reporting mark ATSF), often referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States. Chartered in February 1859, the railroad reached the Kansas- Colorado
Colorado
border in 1873 and Pueblo, Colorado, in 1876. To create a demand for its services, the railroad set up real estate offices and sold farm land from the land grants that it was awarded by Congress. Despite the name, its main line never served Santa Fe, New Mexico, as the terrain was too difficult; the town ultimately was reached by a branch line from Lamy. The Santa Fe was a pioneer in intermodal freight transport, an enterprise that (at one time or another) included a tugboat fleet and an airline (the short-lived Santa Fe Skyway)
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Pyroligneous Acid
Pyroligneous acid, also called wood vinegar or wood acid,[3] is a dark liquid produced by the destructive distillation of wood and other plant materials.Contents1 Composition 2 History 3 References 4 External linksComposition[edit] The principal components of pyroligneous acid are acetic acid, acetone and methanol. It was once used as a commercial source for acetic acid. In addition, the vinegar often contains 80-90% water along with some 200 organic compounds. History[edit] Pyroligneous acid (acetum lignorum) was investigated by German chemist Johann Rudolph Glauber.[4] The acid was eaten as a substitute for vinegar. It was also used topically for treating wounds, ulcers and other ailments
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Preservative
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes. In general, preservation is implemented in two modes, chemical and physical. Chemical preservation entails adding chemical compounds to the product. Physical preservation entails processes such as refrigeration or drying.[1] Preservative
Preservative
food additives reduce the risk of foodborne infections, decrease microbial spoilage, and preserve fresh attributes and nutritional quality. Some physical techniques for food preservation include dehydration, UV-C radiation, freeze-drying, and refrigeration
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Friedrich Ferdinand Runge
Friedlieb (or Friedlob, occasionally misnamed as "Friedrich") Ferdinand Runge (born near Hamburg on 8 February 1794, died in Oranienburg on 25 March 1867) was a German analytical chemist. Runge conducted chemical experiments from a young age, serendipitously identifying the mydriatic (pupil dilating) effects of belladonna (deadly nightshade) extract. In 1819, he demonstrated his finding to Goethe, who encouraged him to analyse coffee.[1] A few months later, Runge identified caffeine.[2]Commemorative plaque in Oranienburg. It reads: Historical site of the Oranienburg chemical product factory, whose technical director from 1832–1852 was Prof. Dr. Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, discoverer of coal tar dyes.Runge studied chemistry in Jena and Berlin, where he obtained his doctorate. After touring Europe for three years, he taught chemistry at the university of Breslau until 1831
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Homology (chemistry)
In chemistry, homology is the appearance of homologues. A homologue (also spelled as homolog) is a compound belonging to a series of compounds differing from each other by a repeating unit, such as a methylene bridge −CH 2−, a peptide residue, etc.[1] Serine
Serine
and homoserine are homologues.A homolog is a special case of an analog. Examples are alkanes and compounds with alkyl side chains of different length (the repeating unit being a methylene group -CH2-). Periodic table[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)On the periodic table, homologous elements share many electrochemical properties and appear in the same group (column) of the table. For example, all noble gases are colorless, monatomic gases with very low reactivity
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Carbolic Acid
29.1 (in acetonitrile)[3]UV-vis (λmax) 270.75 nm[4]Dipole moment1.224 DPharmacologyATC codeC05BB05 (WHO) D08AE03 (WHO), N01BX03 (WHO), R02AA19 (WHO)HazardsSafety data sheet [1]GHS pictograms [5]GHS hazard statementsH301, H311, H314, H331, H341, H373[5]GHS precautionary statementsP261, P280, P301+310, P305+351+338, P310[5]NFPA 7042 3 0Flash point 79 °C (174 °F; 352 K)Explosive limits 1.8–8.6%[2]Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):LD50 (median dose)317 mg/kg (rat, oral) 270 mg/kg (mouse, oral)[6]LDLo (lowest published)420 mg/kg (rabbit, oral) 500 mg/kg (dog, oral) 80 mg/kg (cat, oral)[6]LC50 (median concentration)19 ppm (mammal) 81 ppm (rat) 69 ppm (mouse)[6]US health exposure limits (NIOSH):PEL (Permissible)TWA 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) [skin][2]REL (Recommended)TWA 5 ppm (1
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Auguste Laurent
Auguste Laurent
Auguste Laurent
(14 November 1807 – 15 April 1853) was a French chemist who helped in the founding of organic chemistry with his discoveries of anthracene, phthalic acid, and carbolic acid. He devised a systematic nomenclature for organic chemistry based on structural grouping of atoms within molecules to determine how the molecules combine in organic reactions. He studied under Jean-Baptiste Dumas as a laboratory assistant and worked with Charles Frédéric Gerhardt. Bibliography[edit] Marc Tiffeneau
Marc Tiffeneau
(ed.) (1918). Correspondance de Charles Gerhardt, tome 1, Laurent et Gerhardt, Paris, Masson. References[edit]Blondel-Megrelis, M (2001). " Auguste Laurent
Auguste Laurent
and alcaloids". Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie. France. 49 (331): 303–14. ISSN 0035-2349. PMID 11775639. Fisher, Nicholas W. "Auguste Laurent." Encyclopædia Britannica Mobile. 2013
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Eugen Freiherr Von Gorup-Besanez
Eugen Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez (January 15, 1817 – November 24, 1878) was an Austrian-German chemist.Contents1 Biography 2 Works 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] He was educated in Graz and at Vienna, Padua, Munich, and Göttingen. He was appointed professor of chemistry at Erlangen in 1849. His researches on zoöchemical analysis are important: and his work entitled Anleitung zur qualitativen und quantitativen zoöchemischen Analyse (3d ed. 1871) is very valuable. His principal publication is the Lehrbuch der Chemie (vol. i., 7th ed. 1885; vol. ii., 6th ed. 1881; vol. iii., 4th ed. 1878), which has been translated into French and several other languages. Works[edit]Lehrbuch der Chemie für den Unterricht auf Universitäten, technischen Lehranstalten und für das Selbststudium :1. Lehrbuch der anorganischen Chemie. 2., verm. Aufl. 1863 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf 1. Lehrbuch der anorganischen Chemie
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Beech
Beech
Beech
(Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia
Asia
and North America. Recent classification systems of the genus recognize ten to thirteen species in two distinct subgenera, Engleriana and Fagus.[1][2] The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, and is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees, often made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. Further differentiating characteristics include the whitish bloom on the underside of the leaves, the visible tertiary leaf veins, and a long, smooth cupule-peduncle. Fagus japonica, Fagus engleriana, and the species F
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Oak
See List of Quercus speciesAn oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (/ˈkwɜːrkəs/;[1] Latin
Latin
"oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are approximately 600 extant species of oaks. The common name "oak" also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus (stone oaks), as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta
Grevillea robusta
(silky oaks) and the Casuarinaceae
Casuarinaceae
(she-oaks). The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia, Europe, and North Africa. North America
North America
contains the largest number of oak species, with approximately 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico
Mexico
has 160 species of which 109 are endemic
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