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Cracinae
Curassows are one of the three major groups of cracid birds.[1] Three of the four genera are restricted to tropical South America; a single species of Crax
Crax
ranges north to Mexico
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Curaçao
Curaçao
Curaçao
(/ˈkʊrəsaʊ/ KUR-ə-sow or /ˈkjʊərəsaʊ/ KEWR-ə-sow; Dutch: Curaçao, pronounced [kyːraːˈsʌu̯, kuːraːˈsʌu̯];[6] Papiamento: Kòrsou, pronounced [ˈkorsou]) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea and the Dutch Caribbean
Caribbean
region, about 65 km (40 mi) north of the Venezuelan coast. It is a constituent country (Dutch: land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The country was formerly part of the Curaçao and Dependencies
Curaçao and Dependencies
colony (1815–1954) and is now formally called the Country
Country
of Curaçao (Dutch: Land Curaçao;[7] Papiamento: Pais Kòrsou);[8] it includes the main island of Curaçao
Curaçao
and the uninhabited island of Klein Curaçao
Curaçao
("Little Curaçao")
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NDNA
Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.[1] Nuclear DNA encodes for the majority of the genome in eukaryotes, with mitochondrial DNA
DNA
and plastid DNA
DNA
coding for the rest. Nuclear DNA adheres to Mendelian inheritance, with information coming from two parents, one male and one female, rather than matrilineally, as in mitochondrial DNA.[2]Contents1 Structure 2 Mitochondrial DNA 3 Forensics 4 Cell division 5 Replication 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 ReferencesStructure[edit] Nuclear DNA
DNA
is a nucleic acid, a polymeric biomolecule or biopolymer, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms. Its structure is a double helix, with two strands wound around each other. This double helix structure was first described by Francis Crick
Francis Crick
and James D. Watson (1953) using data collected by Rosalind Franklin
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Blue-billed Curassow
The blue-billed curassow (Crax alberti) or blue-knobbed curassow is a species of bird in the family Cracidae, which includes the chachalacas, guans, and curassows. It is found only in Colombia; areas of its range in the south and east are bordered by the Magdalena River. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest. It is threatened by habitat loss. References[edit]^ BirdLife International (2013). "Crax alberti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature
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Yellow-knobbed Curassow
The yellow-knobbed curassow ( Crax
Crax
daubentoni) is a large species of bird found in forest and woodland in Colombia
Colombia
and Venezuela. It feeds mainly on the ground, but flies up into trees if threatened. Its most striking features are its crest, made of feathers that curl forward, and the fleshy yellow knob at the base of its bill. Females lack this fleshy yellow knob, but otherwise resemble the male in the plumage, being overall black with a white crissum (the area around the cloaca). The adult is 84-92.5 cm (33–37 in)[2] and weighs about 2–3 kg (4.4-6.6 lbs).[3] It eats fruits, leaves, seeds, and small animals. Unlike most other gamebirds, curassows nest off the ground, with both sexes helping in the construction
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Red-billed Curassow
The red-billed curassow or red-knobbed curassow (Crax blumenbachii) is an endangered species of cracid that is endemic to lowland Atlantic Forest in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Its population is decreasing[2] due to hunting and deforestation, and it has possibly been extirpated from Minas Gerais. It is currently being reintroduced to Rio de Janeiro by means of individuals bred in captivity.[3] As suggested by its common name, the male has a largely red bill, but this is lacking in the female.Contents1 Description 2 Behaviour 3 Status 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] The red-billed curassow is a large bird reaching a length of 82 to 92 centimetres (32 to 36 in). The male has pure black upper parts with a large black crest, and white underparts. There are bright red wattles and knobs at the base of the bill
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Bare-faced Curassow
The bare-faced curassow (Crax fasciolata) is a species of bird in the family Cracidae, the chachalacas, guans, curassows, etc. It is found in eastern-central and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and eastern Bolivia, and extreme northeast Argentina, in the cerrado, pantanal, and the southeastern region of the Amazon basin. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forest and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest.Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Behaviour 4 Status 5 References 6 External linksTaxonomy[edit] There are two currently recognized subspecies. A third, the highly elusive and critically endangered Belem curassow (C. f. pinima) has recently been split:C. f. fasciolata (Spix, 1825) - fasciated curassow - lowlands of Brazil to Paraguay and northeast Argentina C. f. grayi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1893) - eastern BoliviaDescription[edit] The bare-faced curassow is a large bird reaching a length of 82 to 92 centimetres (32 to 36 in)
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Black Curassow
The black curassow (Crax alector), also known as the smooth-billed curassow and the crested curassow, is a species of bird in the family Cracidae, the chachalacas, guans, and curassows. It is found in humid forests in northern South America in Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and far northern Brazil. Introduced to Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles.[2] It is the only Crax curassow where the male and female cannot be separated by plumage, as both are essentially black with a white crissum (the area around the cloaca), and have a yellow (eastern part of its range) or orange-red (western part of its range) cere.Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Behaviour 4 Status 5 References 6 External linksTaxonomy[edit] There are two recognized subspecies:C. a. alector (Linnaeus, 1766) - eastern Colombia and Venezuela south of the Orinoco River C. a
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Belem Curassow
The Belem curassow (Crax pinima) is a highly endangered species of curassow endemic to Brazil. It is known as the Mytunxî in the Tupi language. Long considered a subspecies of the bare-faced curassow, the IUCN Red List and BirdLife International have described it as a separate species since 2014, though some authorities still consider it a subspecies. This bird is critically endangered as its highly limited range is located within the most deforested part of Amazonia.[2] As with its relative, the Alagoas curassow, it was considered extinct in the wild (albeit with only 5 individuals in captivity) for many years due to most of its vital habitat being destroyed
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Chachalaca
12-15 (extant), see text.Chachalacas are galliform birds from the genus Ortalis. These birds are found in wooded habitats in far southern United States (Texas),[1][2] Mexico, and Central and South America. They are social, can be very noisy and often remain fairly common even near humans, as their relatively small size makes them less desirable to hunters than their larger relatives. As invasive pests, they have a ravenous appetite for tomatoes, melons, beans, and radishes and can ravage a small garden in short order
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Guan (bird)
Aburria Chamaepetes Oreophasis Penelope Penelopina Pipile OrtalisThe guans are a number of bird genera which make up the largest group in the family Cracidae. They are found mainly in northern South America, southern Central America, and a few adjacent Caribbean islands. There is also the peculiar horned guan ( Oreophasis
Oreophasis
derbianus) which is not a true guan, but a very distinct and ancient cracid with no close living relatives (Pereira et al. 2002). Systematics and evolution[edit] The evolution of the group is fairly well resolved due to comprehensive analyses of morphology, biogeography, and mt and nDNA sequences (Pereira et al. 2002, Grau et al. 2005)
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MtDNA
Human mitochondrial DNA
Human mitochondrial DNA
with the 37 genes on their respective H- and L-strands.Electron microscopy reveals mitochondrial DNA
DNA
in discrete foci. Bars: 200 nm. (A) Cytoplasmic section after immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; gold particles marking mt DNA
DNA
are found near the mitochondrial membrane (black dots in upper right). (B) Whole mount view of cytoplasm after extraction with CSK buffer and immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; mt DNA
DNA
(marked by gold particles) resists extraction. From Iborra et al., 2004.[2]Mitochondrial DNA
DNA
(mt DNA
DNA
or mDNA)[3] is the DNA
DNA
located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
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DNA Sequence
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides within a DNA
DNA
(using GACT) or RNA
RNA
(GACU) molecule. By convention, sequences are usually presented from the 5' end to the 3' end. For DNA, the sense strand is used. Because nucleic acids are normally linear (unbranched) polymers, specifying the sequence is equivalent to defining the covalent structure of the entire molecule. For this reason, the nucleic acid sequence is also termed the primary structure. The sequence has capacity to represent information. Biological deoxyribonucleic acid represents the information which directs the functions of a living thing. Nucleic acids also have a secondary structure and tertiary structure. Primary structure
Primary structure
is sometimes mistakenly referred to as primary sequence
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Sira Curassow
Pauxi unicornis koepckeaeThe Sira curassow (Pauxi koepckeae) is a species of bird in the family Cracidae. It is found in the Cerros del Sira in central Peru. Its natural habitat is tropical, moist, montane cloud forest.[2] It was first discovered in 1969, when a male and female were recovered (unfortunately the female specimen was accidentally eaten),[3] and was not recorded by scientists again until 2000 and 2003, when local Asháninka people were shown pictures of the birds and respectively 1 and 14 people recalled having seen or hunted them in the past few years.[4][5][note 1] The name 'Sira curassow' was proposed as a new English common name in 2011 by Gastañaga et al
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Oligocene
The Oligocene
Oligocene
( /ˈɒlɪɡoʊsiːn/) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present (7001339000000000000♠33.9±0.1 to 7014726771528000000♠23.03±0.05 Ma). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are slightly uncertain. The name Oligocene
Oligocene
comes from the Ancient Greek ὀλίγος (olígos, "few") and καινός (kainós, "new"),[2] and refers to the sparsity of extant forms of molluscs
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Mya (unit)
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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