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Cowpea
The COWPEA, Vigna unguiculata, is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna . Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall it is an important crop in the semi-arid regions across Africa and other countries. It requires very few inputs, as the plants root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen , making it a valuable crop for resource poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. Four subspecies of cowpea are recognised, of which three are cultivated. There is a high level of morphological diversity found within the species with large variations in the size, shape and structure of the plant. Cowpeas can be erect, semi erect (trailing ) or climbing . The crop is mainly grown for its seeds, which are extremely high in protein , although the leaves and immature seed pods can also be consumed
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Sorghum
SORGHUM is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae
Poaceae
. Seventeen of the twenty-five species are native to Australia
Australia
, with the range of some extending to Africa
Africa
, Asia
Asia
, Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans . One species is grown for grain , while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands . Sorghum
Sorghum
is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane )
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Intercropped
INTERCROPPING is a multiple cropping practice involving growing two or more crops in proximity. The most common goal of intercropping is to produce a greater yield on a given piece of land by making use of resources or ecological processes that would otherwise not be utilized by a single crop . CONTENTS* 1 Potential Benefits * 1.1 Resource partitioning * 1.2 Mutualism * 1.3 Pest management * 1.3.1 Limitations * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links POTENTIAL BENEFITSRESOURCE PARTITIONING Careful planning is required, taking into account the soil , climate , crops, and varieties . It is particularly important not to have crops competing with each other for physical space, nutrients , water , or sunlight . Examples of intercropping strategies are planting a deep-rooted crop with a shallow-rooted crop, or planting a tall crop with a shorter crop that requires partial shade
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Domestication
DOMESTICATION is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group. Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors. He was also the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, and unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits. There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations. There is also such a difference between the domestication traits that researchers believe to have been essential at the early stages of domestication, and the improvement traits that have appeared since the split between wild and domestic populations
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Nigeria
The FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA /naɪˈdʒɪəriə/ ( listen ), commonly referred to as NIGERIA, is a federal republic in West Africa , bordering Benin
Benin
in the west, Chad
Chad
and Cameroon
Cameroon
in the east, and Niger
Niger
in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory , where the capital , Abuja
Abuja
is located. Nigeria
Nigeria
is officially a democratic secular country . Modern-day Nigeria
Nigeria
has been the site of numerous kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia. The modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, and the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Millet
MILLETS (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses , widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food. Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India
India
, Mali
Mali
, Nigeria
Nigeria
, and Niger
Niger
), with 97% of millet production in developing countries . The crop is favored due to its productivity and short growing season under dry, high-temperature conditions. Millets are indigenous to many parts of the world. The most widely grown millet is pearl millet , which is an important crop in India
India
and parts of Africa. Finger millet
Finger millet
, proso millet , and foxtail millet are also important crop species. Millets have been important food staples in human history, particularly in Asia and Africa
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Morphology (biology)
MORPHOLOGY is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape , structure , colour , pattern , size ), i.e. EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or eidonomy ), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs , i.e. INTERNAL MORPHOLOGY (or anatomy ). This is in contrast to physiology , which deals primarily with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Divisions of morphology * 3 Morphology and classification * 4 3D cell morphology:classification * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORYThe word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
μορφή, morphé, meaning "form", and λόγος, lógos, meaning "word, study, research"
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Trailing Plant
A VINE ( Latin
Latin
vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") in the narrowest sense is the grapevine ( Vitis
Vitis
), and more generally, any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners. The word also can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance when used in wicker work. In the United Kingdom, the term "vine" applies almost exclusively to the grapevine. The term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. CONTENTS* 1 Growth forms * 1.1 Use as garden plants * 2 Horticultural climbing plants * 2.1 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links GROWTH FORMS Climbing plant covering a chimney Retaining wall covered by vines Certain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time
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Climbing Plant
A VINE ( Latin
Latin
vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") in the narrowest sense is the grapevine ( Vitis ), and more generally, any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners. The word also can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance when used in wicker work. In the United Kingdom, the term "vine" applies almost exclusively to the grapevine. The term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. CONTENTS* 1 Growth forms * 1.1 Use as garden plants * 2 Horticultural climbing plants * 2.1 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links GROWTH FORMS Climbing plant covering a chimney Retaining wall covered by vines Certain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time
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Slave Trade
The HISTORY OF SLAVERY spans many cultures , nationalities , and religions from ancient times to the present day. However the social, economic , and legal positions of slaves were vastly different in different systems of slavery in different times and places. Slavery
Slavery
can be traced back to the earliest records, such as the Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
Code of Hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi
(c. 1860 BC), which refers to it as an established institution, and it was common among ancient peoples. Slavery
Slavery
is rare among hunter-gatherer populations, because it is developed as a system of social stratification
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2nd Millennium BC
The 2ND MILLENNIUM BC spans the years 2000 through 1000 BC. It marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. Its first half is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and Babylonia
Babylonia
. The alphabet develops. Indo-Iranian migration onto the Iranian plateau and onto the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
propagates the use of the chariot . Chariot warfare and population movements lead to violent changes at the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire
Hittite Empire
. The end of the millennium sees the transition to the Iron Age
Iron Age
. World population begins to rise steadily, reaching some 50 million towards 1000 BC
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Self-pollination
SELF-POLLINATION is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants ) or at the ovule (in Gymnosperms ). There are two types of self-pollination: In autogamy , pollen is transferred to the stigma of the same flower. In geitonogamy , pollen is transferred from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on the same flowering plant, or from microsporangium to ovule within a single (monoecious ) Gymnosperm. Some plants have mechanisms that ensure autogamy, such as flowers that do not open (cleistogamy ), or stamens that move to come into contact with the stigma
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Genetic Diversity
GENETIC DIVERSITY is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability , which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles that are suited for the environment. Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population will continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals. The academic field of population genetics includes several hypotheses and theories regarding genetic diversity. The neutral theory of evolution proposes that diversity is the result of the accumulation of neutral substitutions
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Taproot
A TAPROOT is a large, central, and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally. Typically a taproot is somewhat straight and very thick, is tapering in shape, and grows directly downward. In some plants, such as the carrot , the taproot is a storage organ so well developed that it has been cultivated as an edible plant, for which its storage capacity has been exaggerated by selection for size and palatability. The TAPROOT SYSTEM contrasts with the adventitious or fibrous root system of plants with many branched roots, but many plants that grow a taproot during germination go on to develop branching root structures, although some that rely on the main root for storage may retain the dominant taproot for centuries, for example Welwitschia
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Fodder
FODDER, a type of animal feed , is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock , such as cattle , goats , sheep , horses , chickens and pigs . "Fodder" refers particularly to food given to the animals (including plants cut and carried to them), rather than that which they forage for themselves (called forage ). Fodder
Fodder
(/ˈfɒdər/ ) is also called PROVENDER (/ˈprɒvəndər/ ) and includes hay , straw , silage , compressed and pelleted feeds , oils and mixed rations, and sprouted grains and legumes (such as bean sprouts , fresh malt , or spent malt ). Most animal feed is from plants, but some manufacturers add ingredients to processed feeds that are of animal origin. The worldwide animal feed industry produced 873 million tons of feed (compound feed equivalent) in 2011, fast approaching 1 billion tonnes according to the International Feed Industry Federation, with an annual growth rate of about 2%
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