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Cowpea
The cowpea ( Vigna
Vigna
unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna. Due to its tolerance for sandy soil and low rainfall it is an important crop in the semi-arid regions across Africa and other countries. It requires very few inputs, as the plants root nodules are able to fix atmospheric nitrogen, making it a valuable crop for resource poor farmers and well-suited to intercropping with other crops. The whole plant is used as forage for animals, with its use as cattle feed likely responsible for its name. Four subspecies of cowpea are recognised, of which three are cultivated. There is a high level of morphological diversity found within the species with large variations in the size, shape and structure of the plant. Cowpeas can be erect, semi erect (trailing) or climbing
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Genetic Diversity
Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles that are suited for the environment. Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population will continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals.[1] The academic field of population genetics includes several hypotheses and theories regarding genetic diversity. The neutral theory of evolution proposes that diversity is the result of the accumulation of neutral substitutions
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Domestication
Domestication
Domestication
is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.[1] Charles Darwin recognized the small number of traits that made domestic species different from their wild ancestors. He was also the first to recognize the difference between conscious selective breeding in which humans directly select for desirable traits, and unconscious selection where traits evolve as a by-product of natural selection or from selection on other traits.[2][3][4] There is a genetic difference between domestic and wild populations
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Nigeria
The Federal Republic
Republic
of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria (/naɪˈdʒɪəriə/ ( listen)), is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin
Benin
in the west, Chad
Chad
and Cameroon
Cameroon
in the east, and Niger
Niger
in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea
Guinea
in the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja
Abuja
is located. Nigeria
Nigeria
is officially a democratic secular country.[6] Nigeria
Nigeria
has been home to a number of kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia
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Hilum (biology)
In botany, a hilum (pronounced /ˈhaɪləm/) is a scar or mark left on a seed coat by the former attachment to the ovary wall or to the funiculus (which in turn attaches to the ovary wall). On a bean seed, the hilum is called the "eye". For some species of fungus, the hilum is the microscopic indentation left on a spore when it separates from the sterigma of the basidium.[1] A hilum can also be a nucleus of a starch grain; the point around which layers of starch are deposited. The adjectival form hilar denotes the presence of such a mark, and can be used as a distinguishing characteristic of a seed or spore. References[edit]^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CABI
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Cultivar
The term cultivar[nb 1] most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form. Similarly, the world's agricultural food crops are almost exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield, flavour, and resistance to disease, and very few wild plants are now used as food sources
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Fodder
Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. "Fodder" refers particularly to food given to the animals (including plants cut and carried to them), rather than that which they forage for themselves (called forage). Fodder
Fodder
(/ˈfɒdər/) is also called provender (/ˈprɒvəndər/) and includes hay, straw, silage, compressed and pelleted feeds, oils and mixed rations, and sprouted grains and legumes (such as bean sprouts, fresh malt, or spent malt). Most animal feed is from plants, but some manufacturers add ingredients to processed feeds that are of animal origin. The worldwide animal feed industry produced 873 million tons of feed (compound feed equivalent) in 2011,[1] fast approaching 1 billion tonnes according to the International Feed Industry Federation,[2] with an annual growth rate of about 2%
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Self-pollination
Self-pollination
Self-pollination
is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms). There are two types of self-pollination: in autogamy, pollen is transferred to the stigma of the same flower; in geitonogamy, pollen is transferred from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on the same flowering plant, or from microsporangium to ovule within a single (monoecious) gymnosperm. Some plants have mechanisms that ensure autogamy, such as flowers that do not open (cleistogamy), or stamens that move to come into contact with the stigma
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Trailing Plant
A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") in the narrowest sense is the grapevine (Vitis), and more generally, any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners. The word also can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance when used in wicker work.[1][2] In parts of the world, the term "vine" applies almost exclusively to the grapevine,[3] while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants.[4]Contents1 Growth forms1.1 Twining vines1.1.1 Direction of rotation2 Horticultural climbing plants2.1 Use as garden plants3 Example vine taxa 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksGrowth formsVine twining around a steel fixed ladderClimbing plant covering a chimneyCertain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time
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Peduncle (botany)
In botany, a peduncle is a stem supporting an inflorescence, or after fecundation, an infructescence.[1] The peduncle is a stem, usually green, though some peduncles are more or less florally colored or neutral in color, having no particular pigmentation. In some species, peduncles are leafless, though others bear small leaves, or even cataphylls, at nodes; such leaves generally may be regarded as bracts. The peduncle may be ramified, in which case the ramifications are called pedicels. When an unbranched peduncle has no obvious nodes, rises directly from a bulb or stem, and especially if it rises apparently directly from the ground, it commonly is referred to as a scape.[1] The acorns of the pedunculate oak are borne on a long peduncle, hence the name of the tree. See also[edit]Pedicel (botany) Scape (botany)References[edit]^ a b Shashtri, Varun. Dictionary of Botany. Publisher: Isha Books 2005
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Archaeological Evidence
The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past. It is one of the core concepts in archaeology,[1] the academic discipline concerned with documenting and interpreting the archaeological record.[2] Archaeological theory is used to interpret the archaeological record for a better understanding of human cultures. The archaeological record can consist of the earliest ancient findings as well as contemporary artifacts. Human activity has had a large impact on the archaeological record. Destructive human processes, such as agriculture and land development, may damage or destroy potential archaeological sites.[3] Other threats to the archaeological record include natural phenomena and scavenging. Archaeology can be a destructive science for the finite resources of the archaeological record are lost to excavation. Therefore, archaeologists limit the amount of excavation that they do at each site and keep meticulous records of what is found
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Molecular Marker
A molecular marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter. It can be used to reveal certain characteristics about the respective source. DNA, for example, is a molecular marker containing information about genetic disorders, genealogy and the evolutionary history of life. Specific regions of the DNA
DNA
(genetic markers) is are used to diagnose the autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis,[1] taxonomic affinity (phylogenetics) and identity ( DNA
DNA
Barcoding)
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2nd Millennium BC
The 2nd millennium
2nd millennium
BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC. It marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. Its first half is dominated by the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Middle Kingdom of Egypt
and Babylonia. The alphabet develops. Indo-Iranian migration onto the Iranian plateau
Iranian plateau
and onto the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
propagates the use of the chariot. Chariot
Chariot
warfare and population movements lead to violent changes at the center of the millennium, a new order emerges with Greek dominance of the Aegean and the rise of the Hittite Empire. The end of the millennium sees the transition to the Iron Age
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