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Court Of Cassation (France)
The COURT OF CASSATION (French : Cour de cassation; French pronunciation: ​ ) founded in 1804 is one of France 's courts of last resort having jurisdiction over all matters triable in the judicial stream with scope of certifying questions of law and review in determining miscarriages of justice. The Court is located in the Palais de Justice building in Paris . The Court is the court of final appeal for civil and criminal matters. As a judicial court, it does not hear cases involving claims against administrators or public bodies. These generally fall within the purview of administrative courts , for which the Council of State acts as the supreme court of appeal . Nor does the Court adjudicate constitutional issues; instead, constitutional review lies solely with the Constitutional Council
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France–Africa Relations
FRANCE–AFRICA RELATIONS cover a period of several centuries, starting around in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, and have been very influential to both regions
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France–Americas Relations
FRANCE–AMERICAS RELATIONS started in the 16th century, soon after the discovery of the New World
New World
by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
, and have developed over a period of several centuries
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France–Asia Relations
FRANCE–ASIA RELATIONS span a period of more than two millennia, starting in the 6th century BCE
BCE
with the establishment of Marseille
Marseille
by Greeks from Asia Minor, and continuing in the 3rd century BCE
BCE
with Gaulish invasions of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
to form the kingdom of Galatia
Galatia
and Frankish Crusaders forming the Crusader States. Since these early interactions, France
France
has had a rich history of contacts with the Asian continent
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Departments Of France
(incl. overseas regions ) Departments (incl. overseas departments ) Arrondissements Cantons Intercommunality Métropole Communauté urbaine Communauté d\'agglomération Communauté de communes Communes Associated communes Municipal arrondissements Others in Overseas France Overseas collectivities Sui generis collectivity Overseas country Overseas territory Clipperton Island In the administrative divisions of France , the DEPARTMENT (French : département, pronounced ) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities "), between the administrative regions and the commune . There are 97 departments in metropolitan France , and 5 overseas departments , which are also classified as regions
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Regions Of France
(incl. overseas regions ) Departments (incl. overseas departments ) Arrondissements Cantons Intercommunality Métropole Communauté urbaine Communauté d\'agglomération Communauté de communes Communes Associated communes Municipal arrondissements Others in Overseas France Overseas collectivities Sui generis collectivity Overseas country Overseas territory Clipperton Island France
France
is divided into 18 administrative REGIONS (French : région, ), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions . The 13 metropolitan regions (including 12 mainland regions and Corsica) are each further subdivided into 2 to 13 departments , while the overseas regions consist of only one department each and hence are also referred to as "overseas departments"
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Gérard Larcher
GéRARD PHILIPPE RENé ANDRé LARCHER (born 14 September 1949) is a French politician who has been President of the Senate of France since 2014. He previously served in the same post from 2008 to 2011. A member of the center-right The Republicans , he was a Senator for the Yvelines département from 1986 to 2004 and has been again since 2007. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Early life * 1.2 Political career * 1.2.1 Local mandates * 1.2.2 Government minister * 1.2.3 President of the Senate * 2 Political career * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYEARLY LIFE Gérard Larcher
Gérard Larcher
was born in Flers , Orne to a Catholic family. He is the son of Philippe Larcher, director of a textile factory and former mayor of Saint-Michel-des-Andaines , a small town in the Orne
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Court Of Audit Of France
The COURT OF AUDITORS (in French Cour des comptes) is a quasi-judicial body of the French government charged with conducting financial and legislative audits of most public institutions and some private institutions, including the central Government, national public corporations , social security agencies (since 1950), and public services (since 1976). The Court is essentially a cross between a court of exchequer , comptroller general's office, and auditor general 's office in common-law countries. It is as well a Grand Corps of the French State mainly recruiting among the best students graduating from the Ecole nationale d\'administration . The Court's three duties are to conduct financial audits of accounts, conduct good governance audits, and provide information and advice to the French Parliament and Administration
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Foreign Alliances Of France
The FOREIGN ALLIANCES OF FRANCE have a long and complex history spanning more than a millennium. One traditional characteristic of the French diplomacy of alliances has been the "Alliance de revers" (i.e. "Rear alliance"), aiming at allying with countries situated on the opposite side or "in the back" of an adversary, in order to open a second front encircling the adversary and thus re-establish a balance of power . Another has been the alliance with local populations, against European colonial powers . CONTENTS * 1 Strategic "Alliances de revers" * 2 Autochthonous alliances * 2.1 American continent * 2.2 India * 3 Tactical alliances * 4 References STRATEGIC "ALLIANCES DE REVERS"Over the centuries, France has constantly been looking for Eastern allies, as a counterbalance to Continental enemies
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French Language
FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance , the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul
Gaul
, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium
Belgium
, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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French Revolution
The FRENCH REVOLUTION (French : Révolution française ) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire . The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe
Europe
and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution
Revolution
profoundly altered the course of modern history , triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies
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Prerogative Court
A PREROGATIVE COURT is a court through which the discretionary powers, privileges, and legal immunities reserved to the sovereign were exercised. In England in the 17th century a clash developed between these courts, representing the crown's authority, and common law courts. Prerogative courts included the Court of the Exchequer , the Court of Chancery , and the Court of the Star Chamber . Their procedures were flexible and not limited by common law procedures. The Star Chamber became a tool of Charles I employed against his enemies, and was abolished by parliament. A parallel system of common law courts was grounded in Magna Carta and property rights; the main common law courts were the Court of the King's Bench and the Court of Common Pleas
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Parlement
A PARLEMENT (French pronunciation: ( listen )), in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court . In 1789, France had 13 parlements, the most important of which was the Parlement
Parlement
of Paris. While the English word parliament derives from this French term, parlements were not legislative bodies. They consisted of a dozen or more appellate judges, or about 1,100 judges nationwide. They were the court of final appeal of the judicial system, and typically wielded much power over a wide range of subject matter, particularly taxation. Laws and edicts issued by the Crown were not official in their respective jurisdictions until the parlements gave their assent by publishing them. The members were aristocrats called nobles of the gown who had bought or inherited their offices, and were independent of the King
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Court Of Appeal
An APPELLATE COURT, commonly called an APPEALS COURT, COURT OF APPEALS ( American English
American English
), APPEAL COURT ( British English
British English
), COURT OF SECOND INSTANCE or SECOND INSTANCE COURT, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal . In most jurisdictions , the court system is divided into at least three levels: the trial court, which initially hears cases and reviews evidence and testimony to determine the facts of the case; at least one intermediate appellate court; and a supreme court (or court of last resort) which primarily reviews the decisions of the intermediate courts. A jurisdiction's supreme court is that jurisdiction's highest appellate court. Appellate courts nationwide can operate under varying rules. The authority of appellate courts to review the decisions of lower courts varies widely from one jurisdiction to another
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Administrative Court
An ADMINISTRATIVE COURT is a type of court specializing in administrative law , particularly disputes concerning the exercise of public power . Their role is to ascertain that official acts are consistent with the law. Such courts are considered separate from general courts. The administrative acts are recognized from the hallmark that they become binding without the consent of the other involved parties. The contracts between authorities and private persons fall usually to the jurisdiction of the general court system
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Jurisdiction
JURISDICTION (from the Latin
Latin
ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In federations like the U.S., areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state , and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law. Colloquially it is used to refer to the geographical area to which such authority applies, e.g. the court has jurisdiction over all of Colorado. The legal term refers only to the granted authority, not to a geographical area. Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
draws its substance from public international law , conflict of laws , constitutional law , and the powers of the executive and legislative branches of government to allocate resources to best serve the needs of society
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