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Council Of The Indies
The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies (Spanish: Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias, pronounced [reˈal i suˈpɾemo konˈsexo ðe ˈindjas]), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
for the Americas
Americas
and the Philippines. The crown held absolute power over the Indies and the Council of the Indies
Council of the Indies
was the administrative and advisory body for those overseas realms. It was established in 1524 by Charles V of Spain
Charles V of Spain
to administer "the Indies," Spain's name for its territories. Such an administrative entity, on the conciliar model of the Council of Castile, was created following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire in 1521, which demonstrated the importance of the Americas
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garb
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Bourbon Dynasty
Bourbons of SpainHouse of Bourbon-Two Sicilies House of Bourbon-ParmaHouse of OrléansHouse of Orléans-Braganza House of Orléans-GallieraHouse of Condé (extinct)House of Conti House of SoissonsThe House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(English: /ˈbɔːrbən/; French: [buʁbɔ̃]) is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbonic kings first ruled France and Navarre
Navarre
in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma
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Indigenous Peoples Of The Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas
Americas
and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas.[24] Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering
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Charles II Of Spain
Charles II of Spain
Charles II of Spain
(Spanish: Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700) was the last Habsburg
Habsburg
ruler of the Spanish Empire. Known as "the Bewitched" (Spanish: el Hechizado),[1] he is now best remembered for his extensive physical, intellectual, and emotional disabilities and the war that followed his death. He died childless in 1700, all potential Habsburg
Habsburg
successors having predeceased him
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Laws Of The Indies
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.[1] In a more restricted sense, the Indies can be used to refer to the islands of Southeast Asia, especially the Malay Archipelago.[1][2] The name "Indies" is derived from the River Indus and is used to connote parts of Asia that came under Indian cultural influence. Dutch-held colonies in the area were known for about 300 years as the Dutch East Indies before Indonesian independence, while Spanish-held colonies were known as the Spanish East Indies before the American conquest and later Philippine independence. The East Indies may also include the former French-held Indochina, former British territories Brunei and Singapore and former Portuguese East Timor
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Mexican Inquisition
The Mexican Inquisition was an extension of the Spanish Inquisition to New Spain. The Spanish Conquest of Mexico was not only a political event for the Spanish, but a religious event as well. In the early 16th century, the Reformation, the Counter-Reformation and the Inquisition were in full force in most of Europe. The Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon had just re-conquered the last Muslim stronghold in the Iberian Peninsula, the kingdom of Granada, giving them special status within the Roman Catholic realm, including great liberties in the conversion of the native peoples of Mesoamerica. When the Inquisition was brought to the New World, it was employed for many of the same reasons and against the same social groups as suffered in Europe itself, minus the Indians to a large extent
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Peruvian Inquisition
The Peruvian Inquisition was established on January 9, 1570 and ended in 1820.[1] The Holy Office and tribunal of the Inquisition were located in Lima, the administrative center of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Unlike the Spanish Inquisition and the Medieval Inquisition, in the Peruvian Inquisition both the authorities and the church were dependent of the Crown’s approval to carry out jurisdiction. Although the Indigenous people were originally subject to the jurisdiction of the inquisitors, they were eventually removed from the control and not seen as fully responsible for deviation from faith. They were still subject to trial and punishment by the inquisition.[2] In the eyes of the church the Indigenous were seen as gente sin razón, individuals without reason. As a result their trials were separate from other inquisition cases. In spite of that, it still did not stop other people that were of non-Indigenous descent from being accused of other crimes that were against the Church
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Relaciones Geográficas
Relaciones geográficas were a series of elaborate questionnaires distributed to the lands of King Philip II of Spain in the Viceroyalty of New Spain in North America. They were done so, upon his command, from 1579—1585.[1] This was a direct response to the reforms imposed by the Ordenanzas, ordnances, of 1573.[2]Contents1 Format 2 Purpose 3 Result 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 ReferencesFormat[edit] These questionnaires had upward of fifty questions that requested information on various aspects of the Spanish colonial life in each region or major town, in order to govern it more effectively. Thus, these questionnaires had more of an administrative and functional purpose as opposed to intellectual gain
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Philip V Of Spain
Philip V (Spanish: Felipe V, French: Philippe, Italian: Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain
King of Spain
from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he reassumed the throne upon his son's death, to his own death 9 July 1746. Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France
France
as a grandson of King Louis XIV. His father, Louis, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain
Spain
when it became vacant in 1700. However, since neither the Grand Dauphin nor Philip's older brother, Louis, Duke of Burgundy, could be displaced from their place in the succession to the French throne, the Grand Dauphin's maternal uncle (Philip's granduncle) King Charles II of Spain
Spain
named Philip as his heir in his will
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Ferdinand II Of Aragon
Ferdinand II (Aragonese: Ferrando, Catalan: Ferran, Basque: Errando, Spanish: Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily
King of Sicily
from 1468 and King of Aragon[1] from 1479 until his death. The 1469 marriage of Ferdinand, heir apparent to the crown of Aragon, and Isabella of Castile, heir apparent to the crown of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy."[2] As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile
King of Castile
as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, and her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death
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Charles III Of Spain
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain
King of Spain
and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples
Naples
as Charles VII and Sicily
Sicily
as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother King Ferdinand VI of Spain, who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese
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Joseph Napoleon
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe Buonaparte (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe di bwɔnaˈparte]; 7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I). After the fall of Napoleon, Joseph styled himself Comte de Survilliers.Contents1 Early years and personal life 2 King of Naples 3 Spain 4 United States 5 Family and Issue 6 Freemasonry 7 Gallery 8 Titles and styles 9 Legacy 10 Fictional portrayals 11 Ancestry 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External linksEarly years and personal life[edit] Joseph was born in 1768 to Carlo Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino at Corte, the capital of the Corsican Republic
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Seville
Seville
Seville
(/səˈvɪl/; Spanish: Sevilla [seˈβiʎa], locally [seˈβi(ɟ)ʝa] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia
Andalusia
and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river Guadalquivir. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos (feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville
Seville
has a municipal population of about 703,000 as of 2011[update], and a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain
Spain
and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres (2 sq mi), contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies
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American Provincial Deputation Of Spain
The Provincial Deputation was created by the Spanish Constitution of 1812 to provide a representation of the territorial division of Spain and the American dominions of the Spanish monarchy
Spanish monarchy
during the term of the Constitution of Cadiz
Constitution of Cadiz
in the Courts of Cadiz. The constitutional provinces are listed in section ten. The term "province" in America had an imprecise meaning. The American deputies with the word referred to the small province (Partido), while the European deputies did with great province (kingdom, viceroyalty). The Spanish courts identified province with Intendant. The province was governed by a "Superior Political Chief" appointed by the King
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Charles Gibson (historian)
Charles Gibson (12 August 1920 - 22 August 1985, Keeseville, N.Y.) was an American ethnohistorian who wrote foundational works on the Nahua peoples of colonial Mexico and was elected President of the American Historical Association in 1977.[1][2][3] He studied history at Yale University with George Kubler, and he taught for a number of years at University of Iowa
University of Iowa
before moving to University of Michigan. His dissertation on the Nahua polity of Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala
(published in 1952 as Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala
in the Sixteenth Century), a key ally of the Spaniards in the conquest of Mexico, was the first major study of conquest and early colonial era Nahuas from the indigenous perspective
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