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Council Of People's Commissars
The Council of People's Commissars
Council of People's Commissars
(Russian: Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution
October Revolution
in 1917. Created in the Russian Republic, the council laid foundations in restructuring the country to form the Soviet Union. It evolved to become the highest government authority of executive power in the government of the Soviet Union
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Isaac Nachman Steinberg
Isaac Nachman Steinberg (Russian: Исаак Нахман Штейнберг; 13 July 1888 – 2 January 1957) was a Lawyer, Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Revolutionary, Politician, a leader of the Jewish Territorialist movement and writer in Soviet Russia and in exile.Contents1 Early life and first exile 2 Return to Russia, career of Narkom
Narkom
and second exile 3 Freeland League 4 Political views 5 Works 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEarly life and first exile[edit] Steinberg was born in Dvinsk, Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(today Daugavpils, Latvia), into a family of Jewish merchants. He was raised in a traditional religious home. In 1906, Steinberg entered Moscow University, where he studied law. He joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party (also known as SR or Eser) and was exiled for his activism
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Head Of Government
The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments
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People's Commissariat For Railways
The Ministry of Railways (Russian: Министерство путей сообщения (МПС) Российской империи/СССР/РФ or Народный комиссариат путей сообщения (НКПС), more correctly translated as Ministry/People's Commisariat of Transportation[1]) oversaw Soviet Railways, which operated the railways of the Soviet Union. It was divided into 32 agencies, which among them had millions of employees
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People's Commissariat For Labour
The People's Commissariat for Labour was established by the Bolsheviks following their seizure of power during the October Revolution. It functioned as a ministry in the new government which was known as Council of the People's Commissars.Contents1 People's Commissars for Labour 2 References 3 Bibliography 4 External linksPeople's Commissars for Labour[edit]People's Commissar for Labour Period in officeAlexander Shlyapnikov November 8 [O.S. October 26] 1917 — 1 December 1918Vasili Schmidt 1 December 1918 — 29 November 1928Nikolai Uglanov 29 November 1928 — 1 July 1930Anton Cikhon 1 July 1930 — 23 July 1933Yevgeni Braziliya 23 July 1933 — 17 November 1935Before the revolution, the tsarist regime had a Ministry of Labour which was replaced by the People's Commissariat for Labour
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Georgy Oppokov
Georgy Ippolitovich Oppokov (Russian: Гео́ргий Ипполи́тович Оппо́ков; also known as Afanasi Lomov) (1888–1938) was a prominent Bolshevik, he was a Left Communist and subsequently a member of the Left Opposition
Left Opposition
and People's Commissar for Justice. In 1918 he voted against accepting the terms of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty. Then in March 1918 he was ousted from the Supreme Soviet of the National Economy.[1] Oppokov was arrested in June 1937 during the Great Purge, sentenced to death and shot on 30 December 1938. Posthumously rehabilitated in 1956. Notes[edit]^ Bolsheviks and Workers' Control by Maurice BrintonAuthority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 38944486 LCCN: no92028468 GND: 1015623778This article about a Soviet politician is a stub
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People's Commissariat For Justice
The Ministry of Justice of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Министерство юстиции СССР, Ministerstvo Yustitsii SSSR), formed on 15 March 1946, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union. It was formerly (until 1946) known as the People's Commissariat for Justice (Russian: Народный комиссариат юстиции, Narodniy Komissariat Yustitsi'i) abbreviated as Наркомюст (Narkomiust). The Ministry, at the All-Union (USSR-wide) level, was established on 6 July 1923, after the signing of the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, and was in turn based upon the People's Commissariat for Justice of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) formed in 1917
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People's Commissariat For Food
Lua error in Module:Navbar at line 66: Tried to write global div. Gossnab of USSR, State Supplies of the USSR (Russian: Госснаб СССР) was active in 1948-1953, 1965-1991. It was the state committee for material technical supply in the Soviet Union. It was charged with the primary responsibility for the allocation of producer goods to enterprises, a critical state function in the absence of markets. Gossnab was one of more than twenty state committees under the Council of Ministers, the administrative arm of the Soviet government, along with other economic organs such as Gosplan
Gosplan
(the state planning committee) and Gosbank
Gosbank
(the state bank). Created amid a series of economic reforms implemented under Premier Alexei Kosygin
Alexei Kosygin
in the mid-1960s, Gossnab coordinated the allocation of resources not handled by Gosplan
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Anatoly Lunacharsky
Anatoly Vasilyevich Lunacharsky, 23 November [O.S. 11 November] 1875 – 26 December 1933) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and the first Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Soviet People's Commissar ("Narkompros"), responsible for Ministry and Education, as well as active playwright, critic, essayist, and journalist throughout his career.[1][2][3][4][5]Contents1 Background 2 Career2.1 Vpered 2.2 World War I 2.3 People's Commissariat for Education (Narkompros) 2.4 Later career3 Personal and death 4 Legacy 5 Works 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingBackground[edit] Luncharsky was born on November 23 or 24, 1875, in Poltava, Ukraine, Russian Empire. He was an illegitimate child of Alexander Antonov and Alexandra Lunacharskaya, née Rostovtseva. His mother was then married to statesman Vasily Lunacharsky, which gave Anatoly's surname and patronym
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People's Commissariat For Education
A commissariat is a department or organization commanded by a commissary or by a corps of commissaries. In many countries, commissary is a police rank. In those countries, a commissariat is a police station commanded by a commissary. In some armies, commissaries are logistic officers.[1] In those countries, a commissariat is a department charged with the provision of supplies, both food and forage, for the troops.[1] The supply of military stores such as ammunition is not included in the duties of a commissariat.[1] In almost every army the duties of transport and supply are performed by the same corps of departmental troops.Contents1 British Army 2 Soviet Army
Soviet Army
and modern Russian Army 3 Religious usage 4 See also 5 ReferencesBritish Army[edit] In the British Army, the Commissariat was a uniformed civilian service until 1869, when its officers transferred to the new Control Department as commissioned Army officers
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Nikolai Krylenko
Nikolai Vasilyevich Krylenko (Russian: Никола́й Васи́льевич Крыле́нко, IPA: [krɨˈlʲenkə]; May 2, 1885 – July 29, 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik
Bolshevik
revolutionary and Soviet politician. Krylenko served in a variety of posts in the Soviet legal system, rising to become People's Commissar for Justice and Prosecutor
Prosecutor
General of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Krylenko was an exponent of socialist legality and the theory that political considerations, rather than criminal guilt or innocence, should guide the application of punishment. Although a participant in the Show Trials and political repression of the late 1920s and early 1930s, Krylenko was ultimately arrested himself during the Great Purge. Following interrogation and torture by the NKVD, Krylenko confessed to extensive involvement in wrecking and anti-Soviet agitation
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Vladimir Milyutin
Vladimir Pavlovich Milyutin (1884–1937) was a Bolshevik
Bolshevik
leader.[1] Milyutin joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
in 1903 and joined the Bolsheviks. He was viewed as an expert on the peasant question. He died in prison during Joseph Stalin's purges.[1] References[edit]^ a b D.B. Riazonov by Boris Souvarine, accessed 3 December 2008Authority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 111027931 LCCN: n86850456 ISNI: 0000 0001 1004 6799 GND: 126411077 NDL: 00661777This Soviet biographical article is a stub
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Stroke
Stroke
Stroke
is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.[4] There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding.[4] They result in part of the brain not functioning properly.[4] Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side.[1][2] Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred.[2] If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a trans
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Great Purge
The Great Purge
Purge
or the Great Terror (Russian: Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.[1] It involved a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants and the Red Army
Red Army
leadership, widespread police surveillance, suspicion of "saboteurs", "counter-revolutionaries", imprisonment, and arbitrary executions.[2] In Russian historiography, the period of the most intense purge, 1937–1938, is called Yezhovshchina (Russian: Ежовщина; literally, "Yezhov phenomenon",[note 1] commonly translated as "times of Yezhov" or "doings of Yezhov"), after Nikolai Yezhov, the head of the Soviet secret police, the NKVD, who was himself later killed in the purge
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Ivan Skvortsov-Stepanov
Ivan Ivanovich Skvortsov-Stepanov (Russian: Ива́н Ива́нович Скворцо́в-Степа́нов, 1870–1928) was a prominent Russian Bolshevik. Skvortsov-Stepanov was one of the oldest participants in the Russian revolutionary movement and a Marxist writer. Ivan was the son of a Moscow
Moscow
factory clerical worker based in Bogorodsk.[1] He joined the revolutionary movement in 1892 and became a Bolshevik
Bolshevik
in the winter of 1904. When Bor'ba was published in November 1905, Skvortsov-Stepanov was a member of the editorial board. In 1906 he was a delegate to the Fourth Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, where he supported Lenin. During the period 1907–10, he favoured the Mezhraiontsy faction, but later fell again under the influence of Lenin
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Head Of State
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.[1] Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system, such as India, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government.[2] However in some parliamentary systems, like South Africa, there is an executive president that is both head of state and head of government. Likewise, in some parliamentary systems the head of state is not the head of government, but still has significant powers, for example Morocco
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