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Council Of Frankfurt
The COUNCIL OF FRANKFURT in 794 was called by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, as a meeting of the important churchmen of the Frankish realm . Bishops and priests from Francia
Francia
, Aquitaine
Aquitaine
, Italy
Italy
, and Provence
Provence
gathered in Franconofurd (now known as Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
). The synod , held in June 794, allowed the discussion and resolution of many central religious and political questions
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Primate Of Spain
The PRIMACY OF THE ARCHDIOCESE OF TOLEDO is the primacy of the Diocese (later Archdiocese) of Toledo over the other episcopal sees in the Roman Catholic Church in Spain. Now a purely honorary title, it was of major importance in the medieval and early modern era, with the see having a reputation of being the second richest after Rome. It later had a symbolic dimension and was still in use under Francoism . He is often raised to the rank of cardinal by the pope, making him CARDINAL PRIMATE. The Primacy of Toledo means that the Archbishop of Toledo is also known as PRIMATE OF SPAIN. This, must not be confused with the title of PRIMATE OF HISPâNIA (or the Spains) which belongs to the Arcebishop of Braga . Once the Archdiocese of Braga belongs to Portugal , the Cardinal Primate of Toledo is the Primate of only the Kingdom of Spain
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Roman Catholic Archdiocese Of Toledo
This is a list of BISHOPS AND ARCHBISHOPS OF TOLEDO (Latin : Archidioecesis Toletana). They are also the Primates of Spain
Spain
. It was, according to tradition established in the 1st century by St. James the Great and was elevated to an archdiocese in 313 after the Edict of Milan . The incumbent Archbishop
Archbishop
also bears the title PRIMATE OF SPAIN and since 1937 the title General Vicar of the Armies . Archbishop's Palace (Palacio Arzobispal) in Toledo Main entrance to the Cathedral
Cathedral
CONTENTS* 1 List * 1.1 Bishops * 1.2 Archbishops * 2 Auxiliary bishops in the archdiocese * 3 Suffragan dioceses * 4 See also * 5 References LISTBISHOPS * 1 St
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Bishop Of Urgell
The DIOCESE OF URGELL is a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
diocese in Spain
Spain
and Andorra
Andorra
, with origins in the fifth century AD or possibly earlier. It is based in the region of the historical Catalan County of Urgell
Urgell
, though it has different borders. The seat and Cathedral
Cathedral
of the bishop are situated in la Seu d\' Urgell
Urgell
town. The state of Andorra
Andorra
is a part of this diocese. Among its most notable events are Bishop Felix\'s adoptionist revolt, the coup of Bishop Esclua and the overthrowing of the bishop by members of aristocratic families (namely Salla i Ermengol del Conflent, Eribau i Folcs dels Cardona, Guillem Guifré de Cerdanya
Cerdanya
and Ot de Pallars) between the years 981 and 1122
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Heresy
HERESY (/ˈhɛɹəsi/ ) is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs. A HERETIC is a proponent of such claims or beliefs. Heresy
Heresy
is distinct from both apostasy , which is the explicit renunciation of one's religion, principles or cause, and blasphemy , which is an impious utterance or action concerning God or sacred things. The term is usually used to refer to violations of important religious teachings, but is used also of views strongly opposed to any generally accepted ideas. It is used in particular in reference to Christianity , Judaism
Judaism
, and Islam . In certain historical Christian, Islamic and Jewish cultures, among others, espousing ideas deemed heretical has been and in some cases still is subjected not merely to punishments such as excommunication , but even to the death penalty
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Council Of Chalcedon
The COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON (/kælˈsiːdən/ or /ˈkælsᵻdɒn/ ) was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon . The Council is numbered as the fourth ecumenical council by the Catholic Church , the Eastern Orthodox Church , and most Protestants . Its most important achievement was to issue the Chalcedonian Definition . The Council's judgments and definitions regarding the divine marked a significant turning point in the Christological debates. A minority of Christians do not agree with the council's teachings. Chalcedon was a city in Bithynia , on the Asian side of the Bosphorus ; today the city it is part of the Republic of Turkey and is known as Kadıköy (a district of Istanbul )
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Elipando
ELIPANDO (717 - 808?) named Elipandus in some sources was a Spanish archbishop of Toledo and theologian . He was one of the founders of the Adoptivi sect. Although he affirmed Catholic teaching that Jesus is true Son of God, eternally begotten from God the Father and thus of one divine nature with the Father, he also proposed that Jesus, as the son of David , according to his human nature was the adopted rather than the natural son of God . Elipando's assertion seemed to suggest that Christ's human nature existed separately from His divine personhood. Thus, it seemed to be a nuanced form of Nestorianism and came to be known as Adoptionism. However, Elipando's Adoptionism was not the same as another ancient heresy also called Adoptionism . Elipando's teaching was condemned as heresy by the Councils of Ratisbon in 792 and of Frankfurt in 794
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Christology
CHRISTOLOGY (from Greek Χριστός Khristós and -λογία, -logia) is the field of study within Christian theology which is primarily concerned with the ontology of the person of Jesus as recorded in the canonical Gospels and the epistles of the New Testament . Primary considerations include the ontology of the relationship of Jesus with that of God the Father . As such, Christology is concerned with the details of Jesus\' ministry, his acts and teachings , to arrive at a clearer understanding of who he is in his person, and his role in salvation . The views of Paul the Apostle provided a major component of the Christology of the Apostolic Age . Paul's central themes included the notion of the pre-existence of Christ and the worship of Christ as Kyrios (Greek : Lord)
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County Of Roussillon
The COUNTY OF ROUSSILLON (Catalan : Comtat de Rosselló, IPA: , Latin : Comitatus Ruscinonensis) was one of the Catalan counties in the Marca Hispanica during the Middle Ages . The rulers of the county were the Counts of Roussillon , whose interests lay both north and south of the Pyrenees . CONTENTS * 1 Visigothic county * 2 Union with Empúries * 3 Treuga Dei * 4 Independent Roussillon * 5 Roussillon in the Crown of Aragon * 6 Notes * 7 Sources VISIGOTHIC COUNTYThere was a Visigothic county around the city of Ruscino in the 6th and 7th centuries with a jurisdiction corresponding to the Diocese of Elna . This primitive county comprising the historic comarques of Plana del Roselló , Conflent , and Vallespir was created by Liuva I in 571. The Visigothic legacy in Roussillon survived in its courts, where Visigothic law was applied exclusively as late as the 11th century. Roussillon was occupied by the Moors in 721
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Languedoc
LANGUEDOC (/ˈlɒŋɡədɒk/ ; French: ; Occitan : Lengadòc ) is a former province of France . Its territory is now contained in the modern-day region of Occitanie
Occitanie
in the south of France. Its capital city was Toulouse
Toulouse
. It had an area of approximately 27,376 square kilometers (10,570 square miles). CONTENTS * 1 Geographical extent * 2 Area and location of Languedoc
Languedoc
* 3 Old administrative divisions * 4 Capital * 5 Modern administrative divisions * 6 Population and cities * 7 Economy * 7.1 Agriculture * 7.2 Industry * 7.3 Services and tourism * 8 Sports * 9 Property * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 External links GEOGRAPHICAL EXTENT The gouvernement of Languedoc
Languedoc
(including Gévaudan, Velay, and Vivarais) among the former gouvernements of France
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Pope Hadrian I
POPE ADRIAN I (Latin : Hadrianus I c. 700 – 25 December 795) was Pope from 1 February 772 to his death in 795. He was the son of Theodore, a Roman nobleman. CONTENTS * 1 Start of papacy * 2 Foreign relations * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links START OF PAPACYShortly after Adrian's accession in 772, the territory ruled by the papacy was invaded by Desiderius , king of the Lombards , and Adrian was compelled to seek the assistance of the Frankish king Charlemagne , who entered Italy with a large army. Charlemagne besieged Desiderius in his capital of Pavia . After taking the town, he banished the Lombard king to the Abbey of Corbie in France, and adopted the title "King of the Lombards" himself
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Émile Amann
ÉMILE AMANN (4 June 1880, Pont-à-Mousson – 11 January 1948, Strasbourg ) was a French historian of the Church . After studying at the major seminary of Nancy , Émile Amann continued his training at the Catholic Institute in Paris . He was mobilized in 1914 and fought during the four years of First World War. After his demobilization, he joined the faculty of Catholic theology of the University of Strasbourg (re-founded after the return to France of the three departments annexed in 1870), where he taught the ancient history of the Church until his death. He is notable for his collaboration with the Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, from 1922 to his death
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Consubstantiality
CONSUBSTANTIAL ( Latin
Latin
: consubstantialis) is an adjective used in Latin
Latin
Christian
Christian
christology , coined by Tertullian
Tertullian
in Against Hermogenes 44, used to translate the Greek term homoousios . "Consubstantial" describes the relationship among the Divine persons of the Christian
Christian
Trinity
Trinity
and connotes that God the Father
God the Father
, God
God
the Son , and God
God
the Holy Ghost
Holy Ghost
are "of one substance" in that the Son is "begotten" "before all ages" or "eternally" of the Father's own being, from which the Spirit also eternally "proceeds". In Latin
Latin
languages it is the term for homoousism
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Patristics
PATRISTICS or PATROLOGY is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers
Church Fathers
. The names derive from the combined forms of Latin pater and Greek patḗr (father). The period is generally considered to run from the end of New Testament
New Testament
times or end of the Apostolic Age (c. AD 100) to either AD 451 (the date of the Council of Chalcedon ) or to the 8th-century Second Council of Nicaea . CONTENTS * 1 Key persons * 2 Key theological developments * 3 Eras of the church fathers * 4 Locations * 5 Obstacles to 21st-century understanding * 6 Patrologia vs
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Tassilo III
TASSILO III (c. 741 – c. 796) was the duke of Bavaria from 748 to 788, the last of the house of the Agilolfings . Tassilo, then still a child, began his rule as a Frankish ward under the tutelage of his uncle, the Carolingian Mayor of the Palace Pepin the Short (later king ) after Tassilo's father, Duke Odilo of Bavaria , had died in 748 and Pepin’s half-brother Grifo had tried to seize the duchy for himself. Pepin removed Grifo and installed the young Tassilo as duke, but under Frankish overlordship. Later, in 757, according to the Royal Frankish Annals , Tassilo became Pepin’s vassal for his lands at an assembly held at Compiègne . There he is reported to have sworn numerous oaths to Pepin and promised fealty to him and his sons, Charles and Carloman . However, this highly legalistic account is quite out of character for the period; K. L
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Agilolfings
The AGILOLFINGS were a noble family that ruled the Duchy of Bavaria on behalf of their Merovingian
Merovingian
suzerains from about 550 until 788. A cadet branch of the Agilolfings
Agilolfings
also ruled the Kingdom of the Lombards intermittently from 616 to 712. They are mentioned as the leading dynasty in the Lex Baiuvariorum (c. 743). Their Bavarian residence was at Regensburg
Regensburg
. The dynasty's eponymous ancestor is Agilulf (Proto-Germanic Agilwulfaz), a semi-legendary prince of the Suebi and descendant of Hermeric , the 5th-century Suevic king of Galicia, possibly identical with one Agilulf, a steward of the Visigothic king Theoderic II , who was executed in 457. The first duke identified with the Agilolfing line in German historiography is Garibald I (Gariwald)
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