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Cosmogony
Cosmogony
Cosmogony
(or cosmogeny) is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.[1][2] Developing a complete theoretical model has implications in both the philosophy of science and epistemology.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Compared with cosmology 4 Theoretical scenarios 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word comes from the Koine Greek
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Particle Physics
Particle
Particle
physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation. Although the word "particle" can refer to various types of very small objects (e.g. protons, gas particles, or even household dust), "particle physics" usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles and the fundamental interactions necessary to explain their behaviour. By our current understanding, these elementary particles are excitations of the quantum fields that also govern their interactions. The currently dominant theory explaining these fundamental particles and fields, along with their dynamics, is called the Standard Model. Thus, modern particle physics generally investigates the Standard Model
Standard Model
and its various possible extensions, e.g
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Scientific Theory
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t ePart of a series onScienceFormalFormal logic MathematicsMathematical statistics Theoretical computer scienceGame theory Decision theoryInformation theory Systems theory Control theoryPhysicalPhysicsClassical Modern AppliedTheoretical Experimental ComputationalMechanics(classical analytical continuum fluid solid)Electromagnetism ThermodynamicsMolecular Atomic Nuclear ParticleCondensed matter PlasmaQuantum mechanics (introduction) Quantum field theory Special
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Andromeda Galaxy
~0.8-1.5×1012[9] [10] M☉Number of stars ~1 trillion (1012)[12]Size ~220 kly (diameter)[11]Apparent size (V) 3.167° × 1°[1]Other designationsM31, NGC 224, UGC 454, PGC 2557, 2C 56 (Core),[1] CGCG 535-17, MCG +07-02-016, IRAS 00400+4059, 2MASX J00424433+4116074, GC 116, h 50, Bode 3, Flamsteed 58, Hevelius 32, Ha 3.3, IRC +40013See also: Galaxy, List of galaxiesThe Andromeda Galaxy
Galaxy

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Alpha Centauri
Alpha Centauri
Alpha Centauri
(α Centauri, abbreviated Alf Cen, α Cen) is the closest star system to the Solar System, being 4.37 light-years (1.34 pc) from the Sun. It consists of three stars: Alpha Centauri A (also named Rigil Kentaurus[13]) and Alpha Centauri
Alpha Centauri
B, which form the binary star Alpha Centauri
Alpha Centauri
AB, and a small and faint red dwarf, Alpha Centauri
Alpha Centauri
C (also named Proxima Centauri[13]), which is loosely gravitationally bound and orbiting the other two at a current distance of about 13,000 astronomical units (0.21 ly)
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History Of Earth
The history of Earth
Earth
concerns the development of planet Earth
Earth
from its formation to the present day.[1][2] Nearly all branches of natural science have contributed to understanding of the main events of Earth's past, characterized by constant geological change and biological evolution. The geological time scale (GTS), as defined by international convention,[3] depicts the large spans of time from the beginning of the Earth
Earth
to the present, and its divisions chronicle some definitive events of Earth
Earth
history. (In the graphic: Ga means "billion years ago"; Ma, "million years ago".) Earth
Earth
formed around 4.54 billion years ago, approximately one-third the age of the universe, by accretion from the solar nebula.[4][5][6] Volcanic outgassing probably created the primordial atmosphere and then the ocean, but the early atmosphere contained almost no oxygen
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Age Of The Earth
The age of the Earth
Earth
is approximately 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years (4.54 × 109 years ± 1%).[1][2][3][4] This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth
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Earliest Known Life Forms
The earliest known life forms on Earth
Earth
are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates.[1] The earliest time that life forms first appeared on Earth
Earth
is unknown
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Geological History Of Oxygen
Before photosynthesis evolved, Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
had no free oxygen (O2).[2] Photosynthetic
Photosynthetic
prokaryotic organisms that produced O2 as a waste product lived long before the first build-up of free oxygen in the atmosphere,[3] perhaps as early as 3.5 billion years ago. The oxygen they produced would have been rapidly removed from the atmosphere by weathering of reducing minerals, most notably iron. This "mass rusting" led to the deposition of iron oxide on the ocean floor, forming banded iron formations. Oxygen
Oxygen
only began to persist in the atmosphere in small quantities about 50 million years before the start of the Great Oxygenation Event.[4] This mass oxygenation of the atmosphere resulted in rapid buildup of free oxygen
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Cambrian Explosion
The Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion or Cambrian
Cambrian
radiation[1] was an event approximately 541 million years ago in the Cambrian
Cambrian
period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.[2][3] It lasted for about 20[4][5]–25[6][7] million years
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Timeline Of The Evolutionary History Of Life
This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth. In biology, evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization, from kingdoms to species, and individual organisms and molecules, such as DNA
DNA
and proteins. The similarities between all present day organisms indicate the presence of a common ancestor from which all known species, living and extinct, have diverged through the process of evolution
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Gravitational Singularity
A gravitational singularity or spacetime singularity is a location in spacetime where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system. The quantities used to measure gravitational field strength are the scalar invariant curvatures of spacetime, which includes a measure of the density of matter. Since such quantities become infinite within the singularity, the laws of normal spacetime cannot exist.[1][2] Gravitational
Gravitational
singularities are mainly considered within general relativity, where density apparently becomes infinite at the centre of a black hole, and within astrophysics and cosmology as the earliest state of the universe during the Big Bang
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Supermassive Black Hole
A supermassive black hole (SMBH or SBH) is the largest type of black hole, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses (M☉), and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies.[1][2] In the case of the Milky Way, the SMBH corresponds with the location of Sagittarius A*.[3][4]Contents1 Description 2 History of research 3 Formation 4 Doppler measurements 5 In the Milky Way 6 Outside the Milky Way 7 In fiction 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksDescription[edit] Supermassive black holes have properties that distinguish them from lower-mass classifications
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Unsolved Problems In Physics
Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result
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Calabi–Yau Manifold
In algebraic geometry, a Calabi–Yau manifold, also known as a Calabi–Yau space, is a particular type of manifold which has properties, such as Ricci flatness, yielding applications in theoretical physics. Particularly in superstring theory, the extra dimensions of spacetime are sometimes conjectured to take the form of a 6-dimensional Calabi–Yau manifold, which led to the idea of mirror symmetry. Calabi–Yau manifolds are complex manifolds that are generalizations of K3 surfaces in any number of complex dimensions (i.e. any even number of real dimensions)
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String Theory
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. It describes how these strings propagate through space and interact with each other. On distance scales larger than the string scale, a string looks just like an ordinary particle, with its mass, charge, and other properties determined by the vibrational state of the string. In string theory, one of the many vibrational states of the string corresponds to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force. Thus string theory is a theory of quantum gravity. String theory
String theory
is a broad and varied subject that attempts to address a number of deep questions of fundamental physics
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