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Coronal Loops
CORONAL LOOPS form the basic structure of the lower corona and transition region of the Sun
Sun
. These highly structured loops are a direct consequence of the twisted solar magnetic flux within the solar body. The population of coronal loops can be directly linked with the solar cycle ; it is for this reason coronal loops are often found with sunspots at their footpoints. The upwelling magnetic flux pushes through the photosphere , exposing the cooler plasma below. The contrast between the photosphere and the solar interior gives the impression of dark spots, or sunspots. CONTENTS* 1 Physical features * 1.1 Location * 1.2 Coronal loops and the coronal heating problem * 2 History of observations * 2.1 1946–1975 * 2.2 1991–present day * 3 Dynamic flows * 4 Useful links * 5 References PHYSICAL FEATURES A diagram showing the evolution of the solar magnetic flux over one solar cycle
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Elliptical
In mathematics , an ELLIPSE is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve. As such, it is a generalization of a circle, which is a special type of an ellipse having both focal points at the same location. The shape of an ellipse (how "elongated" it is) is represented by its eccentricity , which for an ellipse can be any number from 0 (the limiting case of a circle ) to arbitrarily close to but less than 1. Ellipses are the closed type of conic section : a plane curve resulting from the intersection of a cone by a plane (see figure to the right). Ellipses have many similarities with the other two forms of conic sections: parabolas and hyperbolas , both of which are open and unbounded . The cross section of a cylinder is an ellipse, unless the section is parallel to the axis of the cylinder
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Kagoshima Space Centre
The UCHINOURA SPACE CENTER (内之浦宇宙空間観測所, Uchinoura Uchū Kūkan Kansokusho) is a space launch facility close to the Japanese town of Kimotsuki , in Kagoshima Prefecture
Kagoshima Prefecture
. Before the establishment of the JAXA
JAXA
space agency in 2003, it was simply called the KAGOSHIMA SPACE CENTER (鹿児島宇宙空間観測所). All Japan's scientific satellites were launched from Uchinoura prior to the M-V
M-V
launch vehicles being decommissioned in 2006. It continues to be used for suborbital launches, and has also been used for the Epsilon orbital launch vehicle. Additionally, the center has antennas for communication with interplanetary space probes
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Orbit
In physics , an ORBIT is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet about a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating path around a body, although it may occasionally be used for a non-recurring trajectory around a point in space. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits , with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse, as described by Kepler\'s laws of planetary motion . Current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
's general theory of relativity , which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime , with orbits following geodesics . For ease of calculation, in most situations, orbital motion is adequately approximated by Newtonian mechanics , which explains gravity as a force obeying an inverse square law
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Gamma Ray
GAMMA RAYS (also called GAMMA RADIATION), denoted by the lower-case Greek letter gamma (γ or {displaystyle gamma } ), are penetrating electromagnetic radiation of a kind arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei . It consists of photons in the highest observed range of photon energy . Paul Villard , a French chemist and physicist , discovered gamma radiation in 1900 while studying radiation emitted by radium . In 1903, Ernest Rutherford named this radiation gamma rays. Rutherford had previously discovered two other types of radioactive decay, which he named alpha and beta rays . Gamma rays are able to ionize other atoms (ionizing radiation ), and are thus biologically hazardous. The decay of an atomic nucleus from a high energy state to a lower energy state, a process called gamma decay, produces gamma radiation
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SI Units
The INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS (abbreviated as SI, from the French Système internationale (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system , and is the most widely used system of measurement . It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units . The system also establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as a result of an initiative that began in 1948. It is based on the metre-kilogram-second system of units (MKS) rather than any variant of the centimetre–gram–second system (CGS). SI is intended to be an evolving system, so prefixes and units are created and unit definitions are modified through international agreement as the technology of measurement progresses and the precision of measurements improves
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Yohkoh
YOHKOH (ようこう, Sunbeam in Japanese ), known before launch as SOLAR-A, was a Solar observatory spacecraft of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science ( Japan
Japan
), in collaboration with space agencies in the United States and the United Kingdom . It was launched into Earth
Earth
orbit on August 30, 1991 by the M-3S-5 rocket from Kagoshima Space Center . It took its first soft X-ray image on September 13, 1991 21:53:40 CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Instruments * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONThe satellite was three-axis stabilized and in a near-circular orbit. It carried four instruments: a Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), a Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT), a Bragg Crystal Spectrometer
Spectrometer
(BCS), and a Wide Band Spectrometer
Spectrometer
(WBS). About 50 MB were generated each day and stored on board by a 10.5 MB bubble memory recorder
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Solar Maximum Mission
The SOLAR MAXIMUM MISSION satellite (or SOLARMAX) was designed to investigate Solar phenomena, particularly solar flares . It was launched on February 14, 1980. The SMM was the first satellite based on the Multimission Modular Spacecraft bus manufactured by Fairchild Industries, a platform which was later used for Landsats 4 and 5 as well as the Upper Atmosphere
Atmosphere
Research Satellite
Satellite
. After an attitude control failure in Nov 1980 it was put in standby mode until April 1984 when it was repaired by a Shuttle mission. The Solar Maximum Mission
Solar Maximum Mission
ended on December 2, 1989, when the spacecraft re-entered the atmosphere and burned up over the Indian Ocean
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Skylark (rocket)
SKYLARK was a British sounding rocket design. The Skylark was first launched in 1957 from Woomera , Australia
Australia
and its 441st and final launch took place from Esrange
Esrange
, Sweden
Sweden
on 2 May 2005. Launches had been carried out from sites in Europe, Australia, and South America, with use far beyond the UK by NASA
NASA
, the European Space Research Organisation ( ESRO
ESRO
), and German and Swedish space organizations. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Survivors * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Notes * 4.2 Bibliography * 5 External links HISTORYThe design first dates to 1955, when initial work was carried out by the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough and the Rocket Propulsion Establishment at Westcott
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Spectrometer
A SPECTROMETER ( /spɛkˈtrɒmɪtər/ ) is a scientific instrument originally used to split light into an array of separate colors, called a spectrum . Spectrometers were developed in early studies of physics , astronomy , and chemistry . The capability of spectroscopy to determine chemical composition drove its advancement and continues to be one of its primary uses. Spectrometers are used in astronomy to analyze the chemical composition of stars and planets , and spectrometers gather data on the origin of the universe . The concept of a spectrometer now encompasses instruments that do not examine light. Spectrometers separate particles , atoms , and molecules by their mass , momentum , or energy . These types of spectrometers are used in chemical analysis and particle physics
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Orbiting Solar Observatory
The ORBITING SOLAR OBSERVATORY (abbreviated OSO) Program was the name of a series of American space telescopes primarily intended to study the Sun
Sun
, though they also included important non-solar experiments. Eight were launched successfully into Low Earth orbit
Low Earth orbit
by NASA
NASA
between 1962 and 1975 using Delta rockets . Their primary mission was to observe an 11-year sun spot cycle in UV and X-ray
X-ray
spectra. The initial seven (OSO 1–7) were built by Ball Aerospace , then known as Ball Brothers Research Corporation (BBRC), in Boulder Colorado. OSO 8 was built by Hughes Space and Communications Company, in Culver City, California. The basic design of the entire series featured a rotating section, the "Wheel," to provide gyroscopic stability
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Skylab
SKYLAB was the United States
United States
' first space station , orbiting Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth
Earth
amid huge worldwide media attention. Launched and operated by NASA
NASA
, Skylab
Skylab
included a workshop, a solar observatory, and other systems necessary for crew survival and scientific experiments. It was launched unmanned by a modified Saturn V
Saturn V
rocket, with a weight of 170,000 pounds (77,111 kg). Lifting Skylab
Skylab
into low earth orbit was the final mission and launch of a Saturn V
Saturn V
rocket (which was famous for carrying the manned Moon landing missions ). Skylab
Skylab
was not simply a place of habitation; massive science experimentation was undertaken there
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Solar And Heliospheric Observatory
ESA
ESA
solar system insignia for SOHO HORIZON 2000 Cluster → The SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium ) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995, to study the Sun
Sun
, and has discovered over 3000 comets . It began normal operations in May 1996. It is a joint project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA
NASA
. Originally planned as a two-year mission, SOHO continues to operate after over 20 years in space . In June 2013, a mission extension lasting until December 2016 was approved. In addition to its scientific mission, it is the main source of near-real-time solar data for space weather prediction
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Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
CAPE CANAVERAL AIR FORCE STATION (CCAFS) (known as CAPE KENNEDY AIR FORCE STATION from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command
Air Force Space Command
's 45th Space Wing . CCAFS is headquartered at the nearby Patrick Air Force Base , and located on Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
in Brevard County, Florida
Brevard County, Florida
, CCAFS. The station is the primary launch head of America's Eastern Range with three launch pads currently active (Space Launch Complexes 37B , 40 , and 41 )
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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