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Coronal Loops
Coronal loops form the basic structure of the lower corona and transition region of the Sun. These highly structured loops are a direct consequence of the twisted solar magnetic flux within the solar body. The population of coronal loops can be directly linked with the solar cycle; it is for this reason coronal loops are often found with sunspots at their footpoints. The upwelling magnetic flux pushes through the photosphere, exposing the cooler plasma below
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TRACE
Small Explorer program← SWAS WIRE →Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) was a NASA
NASA
heliophysics and solar observatory designed to investigate the connections between fine-scale magnetic fields and the associated plasma structures on the Sun
Sun
by providing high resolution images and observation of the solar photosphere, the transition region, and the corona. A main focus of the TRACE
TRACE
instrument is the fine structure of coronal loops low in the solar atmosphere. TRACE
TRACE
is the fourth spacecraft in the Small Explorer program, launched on April 2, 1998, and obtained its last science image in 2010.[6] The satellite was built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Its telescope was constructed by a consortium led by Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center
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Solar And Heliospheric Observatory
ESA
ESA
solar system insignia for SOHO Horizon 2000Cluster →The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
(SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space
Matra Marconi Space
(now Astrium) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Atlas II
Atlas II
AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995, to study the Sun, and has discovered over 3000 comets.[2] It began normal operations in May 1996. It is a joint project of international cooperation between the European Space
Space
Agency (ESA) and NASA. Originally planned as a two-year mission, SOHO continues to operate after over 20 years in space
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Spectrometer
A spectrometer ( /spɛkˈtrɒmɪtər/) is a scientific instrument originally used to split light into an array of separate colors, called a spectrum. Spectrometers were developed in early studies of physics, astronomy, and chemistry. The capability of spectroscopy to determine chemical composition drove its advancement and continues to be one of its primary uses. Spectrometers are used in astronomy to analyze the chemical composition of stars and planets, and spectrometers gather data on the origin of the universe. The concept of a spectrometer now encompasses instruments that do not examine light. Spectrometers separate particles, atoms, and molecules by their mass, momentum, or energy
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Orbiting Solar Observatory
The Orbiting Solar Observatory
Orbiting Solar Observatory
(abbreviated OSO) Program was the name of a series of American space telescopes primarily intended to study the Sun, though they also included important non-solar experiments. Eight were launched successfully into Low Earth orbit
Low Earth orbit
by NASA
NASA
between 1962 and 1975 using Delta rockets. Their primary mission was to observe an 11-year sun spot cycle in UV and X-ray
X-ray
spectra. The initial seven (OSO 1–7) were built by Ball Aerospace, then known as Ball Brothers Research Corporation (BBRC), in Boulder Colorado.[1] OSO 8 was built by Hughes Space and Communications Company, in Culver City, California.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The basic design of the entire series featured a rotating section, the "Wheel," to provide gyroscopic stability
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Skylab
Skylab
Skylab
was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth
Earth
amid huge worldwide media attention. Launched and operated by NASA, Skylab
Skylab
included a workshop, a solar observatory, and other systems necessary for crew survival and scientific experiments. It was launched unmanned by a modified Saturn V
Saturn V
rocket, with a weight of 170,000 pounds (77 t). Lifting Skylab
Skylab
into low earth orbit was the final mission and launch of a Saturn V
Saturn V
rocket (which was famous for carrying the manned Moon landing missions).[2] When data from onboard experiments (some of which were on physical film) were returned to Earth, analysis of scientific and engineering data of each mission was completed. Skylab's solar observatory was one of its major functions
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Solar Maximum Mission
Mission
Mission
may refer to:Contents1 Agriculture 2 Government and military 3 Media 4 Places 5 Religion 6 Rivers 7 Other uses 8 See alsoAgriculture[edit] Mission
Mission
(grape), a variety of grape
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Yohkoh
Yohkoh
Yohkoh
(ようこう, Sunbeam in Japanese), known before launch as Solar-A, was a Solar observatory spacecraft of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan), in collaboration with space agencies in the United States and the United Kingdom. It was launched into Earth
Earth
orbit on August 30, 1991 by the M-3S-5 rocket from Kagoshima Space Center
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Kagoshima Space Centre
The Uchinoura Space Center (内之浦宇宙空間観測所, Uchinoura Uchū Kūkan Kansokusho) is a space launch facility close to the Japanese town of Kimotsuki, in Kagoshima Prefecture. Before the establishment of the JAXA space agency in 2003, it was simply called the Kagoshima Space Center (鹿児島宇宙空間観測所). All Japan's scientific satellites were launched from Uchinoura prior to the M-V launch vehicles being decommissioned in 2006. It continues to be used for suborbital launches, and has also been used for the Epsilon orbital launch vehicle. Additionally, the center has antennas for communication with interplanetary space probes.Contents1 History1.1 Launch pads2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] Established in February 1962, the Kagoshima Space Center (KSC) was constructed on the Pacific coast of Kagoshima Prefecture at Uchinoura for the purpose of launching large rockets with probe payloads
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Elliptical
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve. As such, it is a generalization of a circle, which is a special type of an ellipse having both focal points at the same location. The shape of an ellipse (how "elongated" it is) is represented by its eccentricity, which for an ellipse can be any number from 0 (the limiting case of a circle) to arbitrarily close to but less than 1. Ellipses are the closed type of conic section: a plane curve resulting from the intersection of a cone by a plane (see figure to the right). Ellipses have many similarities with the other two forms of conic sections: parabolas and hyperbolas, both of which are open and unbounded
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Orbit
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object,[1] such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating trajectory, although it may also refer to a non-repeating trajectory. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits, with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse,[2] as described by Kepler's laws of planetary motion. Current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime, with orbits following geodesics
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Gamma Ray
Gamma
Gamma
rays (also called gamma radiation), denoted by the lower-case Greek letter gamma (γ or γ displaystyle gamma ), are penetrating electromagnetic radiation of a kind arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei. It consists of photons in the highest observed range of photon energy. Paul Villard, a French chemist and physicist, discovered gamma radiation in 1900 while studying radiation emitted by radium. In 1903, Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford
named this radiation gamma rays
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SI Units
The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units (ampere, kelvin, second, metre, kilogram, candela, mole) and a set of twenty decimal prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system also specifies names for 22 derived units for other common physical quantities like lumen, watt, etc. The base units, except for one, are derived from invariant constants of nature, such as the speed of light and the triple point of water, which can be observed and measured with great accuracy
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Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
Air Force Station (CCAFS) (known as Cape Kennedy Air Force Station from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command's 45th Space Wing.[2] CCAFS is headquartered at the nearby Patrick Air Force Base, and located on Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral
in Brevard County, Florida, CCAFS. The station is the primary launch head of America's Eastern Range[3] with three launch pads currently active (Space Launch Complexes 37B, 40, and 41). Popularly known as "Cape Kennedy" from 1963 to 1973, and as "Cape Canaveral" from 1949 to 1963 and from 1973 to the present, the facility is south-southeast of NASA's Kennedy Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
on adjacent Merritt Island, with the two linked by bridges and causeways
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X-ray
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray
X-ray
wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays
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Florida
Florida
Florida
(/ˈflɒrɪdə/ ( listen); Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida
Florida
is the 22nd-most extensive (65,755 sq mi—170,304 km2), the 3rd-most populous (20,984,400 inhabitants),[11] and the 8th-most densely populated (384.3/sq mi—121.0/km2) of the U.S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. The Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. About two-thirds of Florida
Florida
occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean
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