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Coronal–velar Consonant
Coronal–velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and upper teeth and/or the alveolar ridge. An example of a coronal–velar consonant is one of the coda allophones of /n/ in the Jebero language, which is realized as dentoalveolo-velar [n̪͡ŋ].[1] References[edit]^ Valenzuela & Valenzuela (2013), p. 100.Bibliography[edit]Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2013), "Shiwilu (Jebero)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 97–106, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000370 v t e International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
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Place Of Articulation
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth). Along with the manner of articulation and the phonation, it gives the consonant its distinctive sound. The terminology in this article has been developed for precisely describing all the consonants in all the world's spoken languages
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Roundedness
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel. It is labialization of a vowel. When a rounded vowel is pronounced, the lips form a circular opening, and unrounded vowels are pronounced with the lips relaxed. In most languages, front vowels tend to be unrounded, and back vowels tend to be rounded. However, some languages, such as French and German, distinguish rounded and unrounded front vowels of the same height, and Vietnamese distinguishes rounded and unrounded back vowels of the same height. Alekano has only unrounded vowels.[1] In the International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
vowel chart, rounded vowels are the ones that appear on the right in each pair of vowels
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Peripheral Consonant
In Australian linguistics, the peripheral consonants are a natural class encompassing consonants articulated at the extremes of the mouth: labials and velars. That is, they are the non-coronal consonants. In Australian languages, these consonants pattern together both phonotactically and acoustically. In Arabic and Maltese philology, the moon letters transcribe non-coronal consonants, but they do not form a natural class.Australian peripheral consonantsBilabial VelarStop p kNasal m ŋApproximant wPhonology[edit] Australian languages
Australian languages
typically favour peripheral consonants word- and syllable-initially, and they are not allowed or common word- and syllable-finally, unlike the apicals. In the extinct Martuthunira, the peripheral stops /p/ and /k/ shared similar allophony
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Tongue Shape
Tongue shape, in linguistics (articulatory phonetics) describes the shape that the tongue assumes when it makes a sound. Because the sibilant sounds have such a high perceptual prominence, tongue shape is particularly important; small changes in tongue shape are easily audible and can be used to produce different speech sounds, even within a given language. For non-sibilant sounds, the relevant variations in tongue shape can be adequately described by the concept of secondary articulation, in particular palatalization (raising of the middle of the tongue), velarization (raising of the back of the tongue) and pharyngealization (retracting of the root of the tongue)
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Apical Consonant
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue. It contrasts with laminal consonants, which are produced by creating an obstruction with the blade of the tongue, just behind the tip. It is not a very common distinction and is typically applied only to fricatives and affricates. Thus, many varieties of English have either apical or laminal pairs of [t]/[d]. However, some varieties of Arabic, including Hadhrami Arabic in Yemen, realize [t] as laminal but [d] as apical. Basque uses the distinction for alveolar fricatives, as does Serbo-Croatian. Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
uses it for postalveolar fricatives (the "alveolo-palatal" and "retroflex" series). Lillooet uses it as a secondary feature in contrasting velarized and non-velarized affricates
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Subapical Consonant
A subapical consonant is a consonant made by contact with the underside of the tip of the tongue. The only common subapical articulations are in the postalveolar to palatal region, which are called "retroflex." Most so-called retroflex consonants are more properly called apical. True subapical retroflexes are found in the Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
of Southern India. Occasionally, the term "sublaminal" is used for "subapical," which might be better used for sounds pronounced between the underside of the tongue and the floor of the mouth, such as sucking-teeth. References[edit]Peter Ladefoged; Ian Maddieson. The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell 1996. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. Sanford B. Steever (ed.). The Dravidian Languages. Routledge. New edition 2006. ISBN 978-0-415-41267-4.This phonetics article is a stub
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Laminal Consonant
A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top. It contrasts with an apical consonant, produced by creating an obstruction with the tongue apex (tongue tip) only. The distinction applies only to coronal consonants, which use the front of the tongue.Contents1 Compared to apical 2 Compared to alveolar 3 See also 4 ReferencesCompared to apical[edit] Although most languages do not contrast laminal and apical sounds, the distinction is found in a number of languages:The contrast is very common in Australian languages, which usually have no fricatives. Some languages in South Asia
South Asia
contrast apical and laminal stops. In Hindustani, the apical stops are normally called "retroflex" but are really alveolar or postalveolar
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Sulcalization
Sulcalization (from Latin sulcus, "groove"), in phonetics, is the pronunciation of a sound, typically a sibilant consonant, such as English /s/ and /z/, with a deep groove running along the back of the tongue that focuses the airstream on the teeth, producing a more intense sound. That is accomplished by raising the sides of the back of the tongue ("lateral contraction") and leaving a hollow along the mid-line. It is not clear if all sibilants are so grooved: Catford (1977) observed that the degree of sulcalization differs between places of articulation as well as between languages, but no language is known to contrast a grooved and non-grooved sibilant. English [ɹ], which allows various tongue positions without apparent distinction, may also receive its characteristic quality from being sulcal. In phonology and historical linguistics, sulcalization is the development of such a groove in a non-sulcal consonant
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Domed Consonant
Tongue shape, in linguistics (articulatory phonetics) describes the shape that the tongue assumes when it makes a sound. Because the sibilant sounds have such a high perceptual prominence, tongue shape is particularly important; small changes in tongue shape are easily audible and can be used to produce different speech sounds, even within a given language. For non-sibilant sounds, the relevant variations in tongue shape can be adequately described by the concept of secondary articulation, in particular palatalization (raising of the middle of the tongue), velarization (raising of the back of the tongue) and pharyngealization (retracting of the root of the tongue)
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Lateral Consonant
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth. For the most common laterals, the tip of the tongue makes contact with the upper teeth (see dental consonant) or the upper gum (see alveolar consonant), but there are many other possible places for laterals to be made. The most common laterals are approximants and belong to the class of liquids, but lateral fricatives and affricates are also common in some parts of the world. Some languages, such as the Iwaidja and Ilgar languages of Australia, have lateral flaps, and others, such as the Xhosa and Zulu languages of Africa, have lateral clicks. When pronouncing the labiodental fricatives [f] and [v], the lip blocks the airflow in the centre of the vocal tract, so the airstream proceeds along the sides instead
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Secondary Articulation
Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant. The secondary articulation of such co-articulated consonants is the approximant-like articulation. It "colors" the primary articulation rather than obscuring it. Maledo (2011) defines secondary articulation as the superimposition of lesser stricture upon a primary articulation. For example, the voiceless labialized velar plosive [kʷ] has a stop articulation, velar [k], with a simultaneous [w]-like rounding of the lips. This is in contrast to the doubly articulated labial-velar consonant [k͡p], which is articulated with two overlapping stop articulations. There are a number of secondary articulations
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Labialization
Labialization
Labialization
is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded. The most common labialized consonants are labialized velars
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Palatalization (phonetics)
In phonetics, palatalization (/ˌpælətəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/, also US: /-lɪˈzeɪʃ-/) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate. A consonant pronounced this way is called a palatalized consonant. Palatalized consonants have palatal secondary articulation, or two places of articulation, one of which is palatal. They contrast with palatal consonants, which have palatal primary articulation. Palatalized consonants are pronounced as if followed very closely by the palatal approximant [j], the sound of y in yellow. For example, in the Polish word kiedy "when", the letters ki represent a palatalized [k], transcribed as [kʲ]
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Pharyngeal Consonant
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx. Some phoneticians distinguish upper pharyngeal consonants, or "high" pharyngeals, pronounced by retracting the root of the tongue in the mid to upper pharynx, from (ary)epiglottal consonants, or "low" pharyngeals, which are articulated with the aryepiglottic folds against the epiglottis in the lower larynx, as well as from epiglotto-pharyngeal consonants, with both movements being combined. Stops and trills can be reliably produced only at the epiglottis, and fricatives can be reliably produced only in the upper pharynx. When they are treated as distinct places of articulation, the term radical consonant may be used as a cover term, or the term guttural consonants may be used instead. In many languages, pharyngeal consonants trigger advancement of neighboring vowels. Pharyngeals thus differ from uvulars, which nearly always trigger retraction
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Labio-palatalization
A labio-palatalized sound is one that is simultaneously labialized and palatalized. Typically the roundedness is compressed, like [y], rather than protruded like [u]. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet for this secondary articulation is ⟨ᶣ⟩, a superscript ⟨ɥ⟩, the symbol for the labialized palatal approximant
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