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Copts
The Copts
Copts
(Coptic: ⲚⲓⲢⲉⲙ̀ⲛⲭⲏⲙⲓ ̀ⲛ̀Ⲭⲣⲏⲥⲧⲓ̀ⲁⲛⲟⲥ, Niremenkīmi Enkhristianos; Arabic: أقباط‎, Aqbat) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa[22] who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt, where they are the largest Christian
Christian
denomination in the country. Copts
Copts
are also the largest Christian
Christian
adherent group in Sudan
Sudan
and Libya. Historically, they spoke the Coptic language, a direct descendant of the Demotic Egyptian
Demotic Egyptian
that was spoken in late antiquity
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Roman Egypt
The Roman province
Roman province
of Egypt
Egypt
(Latin: Aegyptus, pronounced [ae̯ˈɡʏptʊs]; Greek: Αἴγυπτος Aigyptos [ɛ́ːɡyptos]) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Ptolemaic Kingdom
of Egypt
Egypt
to the Roman Empire. The province encompassed most of modern-day Egypt
Egypt
except for the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
(which would later be conquered by Trajan). Aegyptus was bordered by the provinces of Creta et Cyrenaica to the West and Iudaea (later Arabia Petraea) to the East. The province came to serve as a major producer of grain for the empire and had a highly developed urban economy
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Memphis, Egypt
Memphis (Arabic: مَنْف‎ Manf  pronounced [mænf]; Coptic: ⲙⲉⲙϥⲓ; Greek: Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt. Its ruins are located near the town of Mit Rahina, 20 km (12 mi) south of Giza. According to legend related by Manetho, the city was founded by the pharaoh Menes. Capital of Egypt
Egypt
during the Old Kingdom, it remained an important city throughout ancient Mediterranean history.[2][3][4] It occupied a strategic position at the mouth of the Nile
Nile
delta, and was home to feverish activity. Its principal port, Peru-nefer, harboured a high density of workshops, factories, and warehouses that distributed food and merchandise throughout the ancient kingdom. During its golden age, Memphis thrived as a regional centre for commerce, trade, and religion. Memphis was believed to be under the protection of the god Ptah, the patron of craftsmen
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Voiceless Bilabial Stop
The voiceless bilabial stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨p⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is p.Contents1 Features 2 Varieties 3 Occurrence3.1 Examples4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the voiceless bilabial stop:Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop. Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips. Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords
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Mycenean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete
Crete
and Cyprus
Cyprus
in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece. The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B, a script first attested on Crete
Crete
before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on clay tablets found in Knossos, in central Crete, as well as in Pylos, in the southwest of the Peloponnese
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Egyptian Soul
The ancient Egyptians believed that a human soul was made up of five parts: the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. In addition to these components of the soul there was the human body (called the ha, occasionally a plural haw, meaning approximately sum of bodily parts).Contents1 Ib (heart) 2 Sheut (shadow) 3 Ren (name) 4 Bâ (personality) 5 Ka (vital spark) 6 Akh 7 Relationships 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further readingIb (heart)[edit]jb (F34) "heart" in hieroglyphsAn important part of the Egyptian soul was thought to be the jb (jib), or heart. The heart[1] was believed to be formed from one drop of blood from the heart of the mother's child, taken at conception.[2] To ancient Egyptians, the heart was the seat of emotion, thought, will and intention. This is evidenced by the many expressions in the Egyptian language
Egyptian language
which incorporate the word jb. In Egyptian religion, the heart was the key to the afterlife
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Late Antiquity
Late antiquity
Late antiquity
is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
(c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
in the mid-7th century
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Demotic (Egyptian)
Demotic (from Ancient Greek: δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian
Late Egyptian
and preceding Coptic. The term was first used by the Greek historian Herodotus
Herodotus
to distinguish it from hieratic and hieroglyphic scripts
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Protestantism In Egypt
Protestantism
Protestantism
is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.[1][2][3][a] It originated with the Reformation,[b] a movement against what its followers con
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Voiceless Labiodental Fricative
The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨f⟩.Contents1 Features 2 Occurrence 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyFeatures[edit] Features of the voiceless labiodental fricative:Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. Its place of articulation is labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth. Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords
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Akkadian Language
Akkadian
Akkadian
(/əˈkeɪdiən/ akkadû, 𒀝𒅗𒁺𒌑 ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: 𒌵𒆠 URIKI )[2][3] is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(Akkad, Assyria, Isin, Larsa and Babylonia) from the 30th century BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Eastern Aramaic among Mesopotamians between the 8th century BC and its final extinction by the 1st to 3rd centuries AD. It is the earliest attested Semitic language,[4] and used the cuneiform writing system, which was originally used to write the unrelated, and also extinct, Sumerian (which is a language isolate). Akkadian
Akkadian
was named after the city of Akkad, a major centre of Mesopotamian civilization during the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire
(c
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Christianity
Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths
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Sa'idi Arabic
Ṣa‘īdi Arabic (Sa'idi Arabic: صعيدى‎, locally [sˤɑˈʕiːdi], Egyptian Arabic: [sˤeˈʕiːdi]), also known as Upper Egyptian Arabic,[4] is a variety of Arabic spoken by the Ṣa‘īdi people south of Cairo, Egypt, to the border of Sudan.[5] It shares linguistic features with both Egyptian Arabic and the Qur'an's Classical Arabic. Dialects include Middle and Upper Egyptian Arabic. Speakers of Egyptian Arabic do not always understand more conservative varieties of Ṣa‘īdi Arabic.[6] Ṣa‘īdi Arabic carries little prestige nationally, but it continues to be widely spoken, including in the north by rural migrants who have partially adapted to Egyptian Arabic
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Ptah
In Egyptian mythology, Ptah
Ptah
(/pəˈtɑː/;[1] Ancient Egyptian: ptḥ, probably vocalized as Pitaḥ in ancient Egyptian)[2] is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of Memphis, he is the spouse of Sekhmet
Sekhmet
and the father of Nefertum. He was also regarded as the father of the sage Imhotep.Contents1 Origin and symbolism 2 Representations and hypostases 3 Development of the cult 4 Main places of worship 5 Photographs 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References 9 LiteratureOrigin and symbolism[edit]Statue of Ptah
Ptah
- Egyptian Museum
Egyptian Museum
of Turin Ptah
Ptah
is an Egyptian deity and considered the demiurge who existed before all other things and, by his will, thought the world into existence
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Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland
(/ˈswɪtsərlənd/), officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern
Bern
is the seat of the federal authorities.[1][2][note 1] The country is situated in Western-Central Europe,[note 4] and is bordered by Italy
Italy
to the south, France
France
to the west, Germany
Germany
to the north, and Austria
Austria
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
to the east. Switzerland
Switzerland
is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi) (land area 39,997 km2 (15,443 sq mi))
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