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Coopers Cave
Cooper's Cave
Cave
is a series of fossil-bearing breccia filled cavities. The cave is located almost exactly between the well known South African hominid-bearing sites of Sterkfontein
Sterkfontein
and
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Gauteng
Gauteng
Gauteng
(/ɡɔːˈtɛŋ/; Sotho pronunciation [xɑ́úˈtʼèŋ̀]), which means "place of gold", is one of the nine provinces of South Africa. Situated in the Highveld, Gauteng
Gauteng
is the smallest province in South Africa, accounting for only 1.5% of the land area.[3] Nevertheless, it is highly urbanised, containing the country's largest city, Johannesburg, its administrative capital, Pretoria, and other large areas such as Midrand
Midrand
and Vanderbijlpark
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H. Basil S. Cooke
Herbert Basil Sutton Cooke FRSSAf (born 17 October 1915) is a South African-Canadian geologist and palaeontologist, and Emeritus Professor at Dalhousie University. Born in Johannesburg, South Africa, he was educated at King Edward VII School before earning a B.A. (1936) and M.A. (1940) at Cambridge University, and M.Sc.
M.Sc.
(1940) and D.Sc. (1947) at the University of the Witwatersrand. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of South Africa
Royal Society of South Africa
in 1948 for his contributions to Quaternary geology. He is known for his studies of fossil pigs and other even-toed ungulates of Africa.[1] A festschrift in honor of his life and contributions was published in Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa in 2006.[2] He received the Canadian Centennial Medal (1967) and Queen’s Golden Jubilee Medal
Queen’s Golden Jubilee Medal
(2002) for his contributions to education
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Australopithecus Africanus
Australopithecus
Australopithecus
africanus is an extinct (fossil) species of the australopithecines, the first of an early ape-form species to be classified as hominin (in 1924). Recently it was dated as living between 3.3 and 2.1 million years ago, or in the late Pliocene
Pliocene
and early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
times; it is debated as being a direct ancestor of modern humans.[2] A. africanus was of slender, or gracile, build and has been found only in southern Africa at four sites: Taung
Taung
(1924), Sterkfontein
Sterkfontein
(1935), Makapansgat
Makapansgat
(1948) and Gladysvale
Gladysvale
(1992).[1]Contents1 Famous fossils1.1 Taung
Taung
Child 1.2 Mrs
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Taung Child
The Taung
Taung
Child (or Taung
Taung
Baby) is the fossilised skull of a young Australopithecus
Australopithecus
africanus. It was discovered in 1924 by quarrymen working for the Northern Lime Company in Taung, South Africa. Raymond Dart described it as a new species in the journal Nature in 1925. The Taung
Taung
skull is in repository at the University of Witwatersrand.[1] Dean Falk, a specialist in brain evolution, has called it "the most important anthropological fossil of the twentieth century."[2]Contents1 History 2 Initial criticism of Dart's claims 3 Acceptance 4 Identification 5 Description 6 See also 7 References 8 Works cited 9 External linksHistory[edit]Taung-1 frontIn the early 20th century, the workers at limestone quarries in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
routinely uncovered fossils from the tufa formations that they mined
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Mrs. Ples
Mrs. Ples is the popular nickname for the most complete skull of an Australopithecus africanus ever found in South Africa. Many Australopithecus fossils have been found near Sterkfontein, about 40 kilometres northwest of Johannesburg, in a region of the Transvaal now designated as the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site. Mrs. Ples was discovered by Robert Broom and John T. Robinson on April 18, 1947. Because of Broom's use of dynamite and pickaxe while excavating, Mrs. Ples’ skull was blown into two pieces and some fragments are missing. Nonetheless, Mrs./Mr. Ples is one of the most perfect pre-human skulls ever found. The nickname ″Mrs. Ples″ was coined by Broom's young co-workers. It derives from the scientific designation Plesianthropus transvaalensis (near-man from the Transvaal), that Broom initially gave the skull, later subsumed into the species Australopithecus africanus
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Little Foot
"Little Foot" (Stw 573) is the nickname given to a nearly complete Australopithecus
Australopithecus
fossil skeleton found in 1994–1998 in the cave system of Sterkfontein, South Africa.[1] The nickname "little foot" was given to the fossil in 1995. From the structure of the four ankle bones they were able to ascertain that the owner was able to walk upright. The recovery of the bones proved extremely difficult and tedious, because they are completely embedded in concrete-like rock. It is due to this that the recovery and excavation of the site took around 15 years to complete.[2]Contents1 Discovery 2 Classification 3 Dating 4 How "Little Foot" lived 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDiscovery[edit]The location where the remains of Little Foot
Little Foot
are being excavatedThe four bones of the ankle were collected in 1980 but were undetected between numerous other mammal bones
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Australopithecus Sediba
Australopithecus
Australopithecus
sediba is a species of Australopithecus
Australopithecus
of the early Pleistocene, identified based on fossil remains dated to about 2 million years ago. The species is known from six skeletons discovered in the Malapa Fossil Site at the Cradle of Humankind
Cradle of Humankind
World Heritage Site in South Africa, including a juvenile male (MH1 also called "Karabo",[2] the holotype), an adult female (MH2, the paratype), an adult male, and three infants.[1][3] The fossils were found together at the bottom of the Malapa Cave, where they apparently fell to their death, and have been dated to between 1.980 and 1.977 million years ago.[4][5] Over 220 fragments from the species have been recovered to date.[1] The partial skeletons were initially described in two papers in the journal Science by American and South African paleoanthropologist Lee R
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Homo Naledi
Homo
Homo
naledi is an extinct species of hominin, which anthropologists first described in September 2015 and have assigned to the genus Homo.[2] In 2013, fossil skeletons were found in the Gauteng
Gauteng
province of South Africa, in the Rising Star Cave
Rising Star Cave
system, part of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
about 50 km (31 mi) northwest of Johannesburg.[2][3] Prior to dating, initial judgement based on archaic features of its anatomy favoured an age of roughly two million years old.[3] In 2017, however, the fossils were dated to between 335,000 and 236,000 years ago, long after much larger-brained and more modern-looking hominins had appeared.[1][4] The research team therefore thinks that H
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Robert Broom
Robert Broom
Robert Broom
FRS[1] FRSE
FRSE
(30 November 1866, Paisley – 6 April 1951) was a Scottish South African doctor and paleontologist
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Ronald J. Clarke
Ronald J. Clarke is a paleoanthropologist most notable for the discovery of "Little Foot", an extraordinarily complete skeleton of Australopithecus, in the Sterkfontein Caves.[1] A more technical description of various aspects of his description of the Australopithecus skeleton was published in the Journal of Quaternary Science.[2] He also discovered the Homo ergaster partial cranium SK 847.[3] He also played a role in the discovery of a new skeleton of Homo habilis related to Homo rudolfensis.[4] He was associated with the University of the Witwatersrand, then joined Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main in Frankfurt, Germany where he continued his work excavating "Little Foot".[5] He later rejoined the University of the Witwatersrand's Institute for Human Evolution, where he remains as of present. See also[edit]Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ronald J
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Rising Star Cave
The Rising Star cave system (also known as Westminster or Empire cave) is located in the Malmani dolomites, in Bloubank River valley, about 800 meters (0.50 miles; 2,600 feet) southwest of Swartkrans, part of the Cradle of Humankind
Cradle of Humankind
World Heritage Site
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Raymond Dart
Raymond Arthur Dart (4 February 1893 – 22 November 1988) was an Australian anatomist and anthropologist, best known for his involvement in the 1924 discovery of the first fossil ever found of Australopithecus africanus, an extinct hominin closely related to humans, at Taung
Taung
in the North of South Africa
South Africa
in the province Northwest.Contents1 Early life 2 Career2.1 Neuroscience3 Personal life 4 Legacy 5 Bibliography 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Raymond Dart
Raymond Dart
was born in Toowong, a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, the fifth of nine children and son of a farmer and tradesman. His birth occurred during the 1893 flood which filled his parents' home and shop in Toowong
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Andre Keyser
Andre Werner Keyser (8 March 1938, Pretoria – 15 August 2010, Pretoria), was a South African palaeontologist and geologist noted for his discovery of the Drimolen hominid site and of numerous hominid remains. In 1994 he discovered a female Paranthropus robustus skull, nicknamed Eurydice,[1] the most complete australopithecine skull ever excavated. In 1997 he found two children’s skulls some 1.5 to 2 million years old. The children were under 3 years old at the time of their death, and were found at the Drimolen site near the Sterkfontein Caves. [2][3][4][5] In the 1930s Robert Broom, acting on a suggestion from a Transvaal Museum lepidopterist, was the first palaeontologist to visit Gladysvale Cave, hoping to find a hominid fossil cave close to Johannesburg. In 1946 Phillip Tobias recovered a baboon fossil from the site. The 1948 Camp-Peabody expedition from the United States failed to find any hominid remains
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