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Contract Clause
This article needs attention from an expert in Law. The specific problem is: Extremely difficult to read. See Talk
Talk
page. WikiProject Law may be able to help recruit an expert. (November 2008)The Contract
Contract
Clause appears in the United States
United States
Constitution, Article I, section 10, clause 1. It states:No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.The Contract
Contract
Clause prohibits states from enacting any law that retroactively impairs contract rights
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Book
A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it. The book's most common modern form is that of a codex volume consisting of rectangular paper pages bound on one side, with a heavier cover and spine, so that it can fan open for reading. Books have taken other forms, such as scrolls, leaves on a string, or strips tied together; and the pages have been of parchment, vellum, papyrus, bamboo slips, palm leaves, silk, wood, and other materials.[1] The contents of books are also called books, as are other compositions of that length. For instance, Aristotle's Physics, the constituent sections of the Bible, and even the Egyptian Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
are called books independently of their physical form. Conversely, some long literary compositions are divided into books of varying sizes, which typically do not correspond to physically bound units
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Republicanism In The United States
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Federalism In The United States
Federalism
Federalism
in the United States
United States
is the constitutional relationship between U.S. state
U.S. state
governments and the federal government of the United States. Since the founding of the country, and particularly with the end of the American Civil War, power shifted away from the states and towards the national government
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Articles Of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States
United States
of America that served as its first constitution.[1] It was approved, after much debate (between July 1776 and November 1777), by the Second Continental Congress
Continental Congress
on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification. The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states. A guiding principle of the Articles was to preserve the independence and sovereignty of the states. The federal government received only those powers which the colonies had recognized as belonging to king and parliament.[2] The Articles formed a war-time confederation of states, with an extremely limited central government
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Twenty-seventh Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-seventh Amendment (Amendment XXVII) to the United States Constitution prohibits any law that increases or decreases the salary of members of Congress from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms of office for Representatives. It is the most recent amendment to be adopted, but one of the first proposed. It was submitted by Congress to the states for ratification on September 25, 1789, along with eleven other proposed amendments. While ten of these twelve proposals were ratified in 1791 to become the Bill of Rights, what would become the Twenty-seventh Amendment and the proposed Congressional Apportionment Amendment
Congressional Apportionment Amendment
did not get ratified by enough states for them to also come into force with the first ten amendments
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Nineteenth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex. It was adopted on August 18, 1920. Until the 1910s, most states did not give women the right to vote. The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement in the United States, which fought at both state and national levels to achieve the vote. It effectively overruled Minor v. Happersett, in which a unanimous Supreme Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not give women the right to vote. The Nineteenth Amendment was originally introduced in Congress in 1878 by Senator Aaron A. Sargent. Forty-one years later, in 1919, Congress submitted it to the states for ratification. It was ratified by three-fourths of the states a year later, with Tennessee's ratification being the last needed to add the amendment to the Constitution. In Leser v
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Twentieth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twentieth Amendment (Amendment XX) to the United States Constitution moved the beginning and ending of the terms of the president and vice president from March 4 to January 20, and of members of Congress from March 4 to January 3. It also has provisions that determine what is to be done when there is no president-elect. The Twentieth Amendment was adopted on January 23, 1933.[1]Contents1 Text 2 Historical background 3 Proposal and ratification 4 Effect of the amendment 5 References 6 External linksText[edit]Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin. Section 2
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Twenty-first Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-first Amendment (Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition
Prohibition
on alcohol on January 16, 1919. The Twenty-first Amendment was ratified on December 5, 1933.[1] It is unique among the 27 amendments of the U.S. Constitution for being the only one to repeal a prior amendment and to have been ratified by state ratifying conventions.Contents1 Text 2 Background 3 Proposal and ratification 4 Implementation4.1 State and local control 4.2 Court rulings5 See also 6 References 7 External linksText[edit]Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2
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Twenty-Second Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-second Amendment (Amendment XXII) of the United States Constitution sets a limit on the number of times a person is eligible for election to the office of President of the United States, and also sets additional eligibility conditions for presidents who succeed to the unexpired terms of their predecessors.[1] Congress approved the amendment on March 24, 1947, and submitted it to the state legislatures for ratification. That process was completed on February 27, 1951, after the amendment had been ratified by the requisite 36 of the then-48 states (as neither Alaska nor Hawaii had yet been admitted as states), and its provisions came into force on that date.Contents1 Text 2 Background 3 Proposal and ratification3.1 Proposal in Congress 3.2 Ratification by the states4 Affected individuals 5 Interaction with the Twelfth Amendment 6 Attempts at repeal 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksText[edit]Section 1
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Twenty-third Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-third Amendment (Amendment XXIII) to the United States Constitution extends the right to vote in the presidential election to citizens residing in the District of Columbia
District of Columbia
by granting the District electors in the Electoral College, as if it was a state. The amendment was proposed by the 86th Congress on June 16, 1960. Ratification by the requisite 38 of the 50 states was completed on March 29, 1961. The Electoral College, established in Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution, is the institution that elects the President and Vice President of the United States
President of the United States
every four years. The President and Vice President are not elected directly by the voters. Instead, they are elected by "electors" who are chosen by popular vote on a state-by-state basis
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Twenty-fourth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-fourth Amendment (Amendment XXIV) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964. Southern states of the former Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
adopted poll taxes in laws of the late 19th century and new constitutions from 1890 to 1908, after the Democratic Party had generally regained control of state legislatures decades after the end of Reconstruction, as a measure to prevent African Americans
African Americans
and often poor whites from voting. Use of the poll taxes by states was held to be constitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
in the 1937 decision Breedlove v
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Twenty-fifth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities
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Twenty-sixth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Twenty-sixth Amendment (Amendment XXVI) to the United States Constitution prohibits the states and the federal government from using age as a reason for denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States who are at least eighteen years old. The drive to lower the voting age from 21 to 18 grew across the country during the 1960s, driven in large part by the broader student activism movement protesting the Vietnam War. The impetus for drafting an amendment to lower the voting age arose following the Supreme Court's decision in Oregon
Oregon
v. Mitchell, 400 U.S. 112 (1970), which held that Congress may establish a voting age for federal elections, but not for local or state elections. On March 23, 1971, a proposal to lower the voting age to 18 years was adopted by both houses of Congress and sent to the states for ratification
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Corwin Amendment
The Corwin Amendment
Corwin Amendment
is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution that would shield "domestic institutions" of the states (which in 1861 included slavery) from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress. It passed Congress but was never ratified by the states and never took effect.[1][2] One month after the initial Confederacy was formed, the amendment was passed by the 36th Congress on March 2, 1861, and submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. Senator William H
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Congressional Apportionment Amendment
The Congressional Apportionment Amendment
Congressional Apportionment Amendment
(originally titled Article the First) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution, one of twelve proposed amendments to the United States Constitution approved by the 1st Congress on September 25, 1789, and sent to the legislatures of the several states for ratification. Congress did not set a time limit for its ratification, so the Congressional Apportionment Amendment is still technically pending before the states. Ratification by an additional 27 states is necessary for this amendment to be adopted. If adopted, it would establish a formula for determining the appropriate size of the House of Representatives following each constitutionally mandated decennial census
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