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Constitution Of Afghanistan
The Constitution of Afghanistan is the supreme law of the state of Afghanistan, which serves as the legal framework between the Afghan government and the Afghan citizens. Although Afghanistan (Afghan Empire) was made a state in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, the earliest Afghan constitution was written during the reign of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan in the 1890s followed by the 1923 version. The 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan transformed Afghanistan into a modern democracy. The current Afghan constitution was approved by the consensus in January 2004 after the 2003 loya jirga. The Constitution consists of 162 articles and was officially signed by Hamid Karzai on January 26, 2004. It evolved out of the Afghan Constitution Commission mandated by the Bonn Agreement. The constitution provides for an elected President and National Assembly
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2002 Loya Jirga
An emergency "loya jirga" (Pashto for "grand assembly") was held in Kabul, Afghanistan between 11 and 19 June 2002 to elect a transitional administration. The loya jirga was called for by the Bonn Agreement. The agreement (designed by Afghan leaders) was drawn up in December 2001 in Germany
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Abdul Rashid Dostum
Abdul Rashid Dostum (/ˈɑːbdəl rəˈʃd dsˈtm/ (About this sound listen) AHB-dəl rə-SHEED dohs-TOOM; Dari: عبدالرشید دوستم‎, Uzbek Latin: Abdul Rashid Do‘stum, Uzbek Cyrillic: Абдул Рашид Дўстум; born 1954) is an Afghan politician and general who has served as Vice President of Afghanistan since 2014. An ethnic Uzbek, he is a former communist general and warlord known for siding with winners during different wars in Afghanistan. He is the chairman of his own political party, Junbish-e Milli (National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan). During the Soviet-Afghan War in the 1980s, Dostum was part of the Afghan National Army and the regional commander of the country's north, commanding about 20,000 mostly Uzbek soldiers participating in battles against mujahideen rebels
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List Of Diplomatic Missions In Afghanistan
This is a list of diplomatic missions in Afghanistan. At present, the capital city of Kabul hosts 37 embassies. With the presence of NATO troops, many of the organization's members have opened embassies in the country
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Visa Requirements For Afghan Citizens
Visa requirements for Afghan citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Afghanistan
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Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single document or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to embody a written constitution; if they are written down in a single comprehensive document, it is said to embody a codified constitution. Some constitutions (such as the constitution of the United Kingdom) are uncodified, but written in numerous fundamental Acts of a legislature, court cases or treaties. Constitutions concern different levels of organizations, from sovereign states to companies and unincorporated associations. A treaty which establishes an international organization is also its constitution, in that it would define how that organization is constituted
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Sovereign State
A sovereign state, in international law, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area
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Legal Doctrine
A legal doctrine is a framework, set of rules, procedural steps, or test, often established through precedent in the common law, through which judgments can be determined in a given legal case. A doctrine comes about when a judge makes a ruling where a process is outlined and applied, and allows for it to be equally applied to like cases
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Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire (Pashto: د درانیانو واکمني‎), also called the Afghan Empire (د افغانانو واکمني), was founded and built by Ahmad Shah Durrani. At its maximum extent, the empire covered the modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, as well as some parts of northeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India including the Kashmir region. After the death of Nader Shah in 1747, the region of Kandahar was claimed by Ahmad Shah Durrani. From there he began conquering Ghazni followed by Kabul. In 1749 the Mughal ruler had ceded sovereignty over what is now Pakistan and northwestern Punjab to the Afghans. Ahmad Shah then set out westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Shahrokh Shah. He next sent an army to subdue the areas north of the Hindu Kush and in short order all the different tribes began joining his cause
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Sarwar Danish
Mohammad Sarwar Danish (Dari: سرور دانش‎) (born 1961) is an Afghan politician who has been Vice President of Afghanistan since 2014. He previously served as Acting Minister of Justice from 2004 to 2010 and as Acting Minister of Higher Education from 2010 to 2014
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Nation State
A nation state (or nation-state) in the most specific sense is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern. It is a more precise term than "country," but of the same general meaning, being that it is an ethnic nation with its own land (thus "homeland") and government. A nation, in the sense of a common ethnicity, may include a diaspora or refugees who live outside the nation-state; some nations of this sense do not have a state where that ethnicity predominates. In a more general sense, a nation-state is simply a large, politically sovereign country or administrative territory
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Abdullah Abdullah
Abdullah Abdullah (Dari/Pashto: عبدالله عبدالله, born September 5, 1960) is an Afghan politician, serving as Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since September 2014. From October 2001 to April 2005, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Prior to that he was a senior member of the Northern Alliance working as an adviser to Ahmad Shah Massoud. He also worked as a medical doctor during the late 1990s. Abdullah ran against President Hamid Karzai in the 2009 Afghan presidential election, coming in second place with 30.5% of the total votes
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Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. He began his career by enlisting as a young soldier in the military of the Afsharid kingdom and quickly rose to become a commander of the Abdali Regiment, a cavalry of four thousand Abdali Pashtun soldiers. After the assassination of Nader Shah Afshar in 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani was chosen as King of Afghanistan. Rallying his Afghan tribes and allies, he pushed east towards the Mughal and the Maratha empires of India, west towards the disintegrating Afsharid Empire of Persia, and north toward the Khanate of Bukhara
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Ashraf Ghani
Mohammad Ashraf Ghanī Ahmadzai (Pashto/Dari: محمد اشرف غني احمدزی‎, born 19 May 1949) is the current President of Afghanistan, elected on 21 September 2014. An anthropologist by education, he previously served as finance minister and the chancellor of Kabul University. Before returning to Afghanistan in 2002, Ghani was an anthropologist professor at numerous institutes (mostly Johns Hopkins University), and later started working with the World Bank. As the Finance Minister of Afghanistan between July 2002 and December 2004, he led Afghanistan's attempted economic recovery after the collapse of the Taliban government. He is the co-founder of the Institute for State Effectiveness, an organization set up in 2005 to improve the ability of states to serve their citizens
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, ˈmɪər, ˈmɪər/; Arabic: أميرʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira (أميرة ʾamīrah)
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